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Causes of bad breath in adults, treatment and medications

Bad breath is called halitosis. In most cases, this is one of the manifestations of dental or other diseases, so that refreshments can only mask it for a while.

Enhance the smell can poor oral hygiene. Often, this symptom is a harbinger of life-threatening conditions. About the causes of bad breath in adults and the treatment of halitosis, read on.


Causes of bad breath in an adult

Causes of bad breath in adults

Bad breath, due to pathological causes, always has a specificity, that is, the same for a particular disease.

Caries and other oral diseases cause the appearance of one type of smell, problems of the stomach and intestines of the other. Doctors distinguish these types of halitosis:

  1. Pathological - it is caused by diseases of the internal organs (extraoral halitosis) or dental problems (oral).
  2. Physiological, which is not associated with diseases and is due to errors in nutrition or lack of proper oral care. This smell occurs when fasting, smoking, taking alcohol or drugs.

There are also terms such as halitophobia and pseudo-halitosis. These conditions are due to psychological reasons. In the first case, there is a fear of the smell after the illness, suspicious people are prone to this.

Psevdogalitoz refers to obsessive states, when a person feels that he constantly has an unpleasant smell from the mouth - this requires the help of a psychotherapist.

One or another cause of bad breath in an adult determines the nature, or hue, of halitosis. It, in turn, helps to understand where the problem can be localized in the body.

вызывают семь типов запаха из ротовой полости: Pathological factors cause seven types of oral odor:

  • putrefactive;
  • kala;
  • ammonia;
  • sour;
  • acetone;
  • rotten eggs.

Putrid breath

Often points to dental diseases and pathologies of the respiratory organs. It may appear due to the accumulation of food debris in the tooth damaged by caries or under the prosthesis, due to the inflammatory process. The nature of the smell due to the decomposition of amino acids under the action of bacteria.

As a result, volatile unpleasant-smelling substances are formed. The following are common causes of putrid odor.

  1. Respiratory diseases - sinusitis, sore throat, pneumonia, tuberculosis, sinusitis , lung abscess , bronchiectasis, tonsillitis, allergic rhinitis, or bronchitis.
  2. Diseases of the oral cavity - dysbacteriosis, stomatitis, periodontitis, caries, diseases of the salivary glands or periodontal disease.

Putrid odor can also cause:

  • plaque on the teeth or tartar due to poor hygiene;
  • smoking or alcohol abuse;
  • disturbed digestion - the smell can be especially pronounced.

The smell of feces from the mouth

The smell of feces from the mouth Its cause is often localized in the intestines and is caused by dysbiosis, obstruction, decreased motility and absorption of food.

The smell of feces from the mouth is in people suffering from anorexia or bulimia , which is also associated with a violation of the digestion process - the food is not absorbed, begins to rot and wander.

A fecal odor sometimes occurs with an infectious lesion of the respiratory system.

The smell of ammonia from the mouth

It occurs in diseases of the kidneys and kidney failure, when the level of urea in the blood, the molecule of which contains an amino group, is elevated. Due to the failure of the filtering system, the body begins to look for other ways of removing this toxic substance - through the skin and mucous membranes. As a result, the mouth smells like ammonia.

Smell of acid

The acidic smell from the mouth in adults provokes an increased acidity of the stomach, which can be caused by various diseases - gastritis, esophageal diverticulitis , duodenal ulcer or stomach ulcer, pancreatitis.

Sour odor may be accompanied by heartburn and nausea.

The smell of rotten eggs

It also appears in case of problems with the stomach, but already in the case of low acidity, as well as gastritis, there may be belching and a feeling of discomfort in the stomach. Another reason for the smell of rotten eggs from the mouth is food poisoning.

The smell of acetone from the mouth

The smell of acetone from the mouth

He points to diseases of the pancreas - diabetes, pancreatitis, as well as some other pathologies, which are described below.

There are several pathogenic causes of the smell of acetone from the mouth in an adult. The most harmless of them may be indigestion, but there are serious diseases that cause this symptom.


With advanced forms of diabetes, blood sugar levels are very high. At the same time, a large amount of ketone bodies, which colloquially call acetone, is also released into the blood (in fact, they are compounds of the same class with a similar structure).

In this state, the kidneys begin to actively remove acetone, so urine analysis will show its presence. In addition to the kidneys, ketone bodies are secreted through the lungs, which causes the appearance of a specific odor from the mouth.

This symptom requires immediate examination and medical attention, since it is a precursor of diabetic coma.

Liver disease

Acetone in the blood and urine can appear in some diseases of the liver. This body produces enzymes that break down substances that are toxic to the body, including neutralizing ketone bodies.

In violation of liver function may occur the appearance of acetone and, as a consequence, the appearance of odor from the mouth.

Thyroid problems

Hyperthyroid crisis can provoke the smell of acetone from the mouth - a dangerous, abruptly occurring condition. This is an extreme form of hyperthyroidism , in which the production of iodine-containing hormones by the thyroid gland is increased. The characteristic smell of acetone comes from the urine.

Other signs of a crisis include anxiety, hallucinations, delirium, shaking hands, a drop in blood pressure, muscle weakness, tachycardia, vomiting, and fever.

Kidney disease

The smell of acetone can occur in pathologies of the kidneys:

  • nephrosis;
  • renal failure;
  • kidney dystrophy.

Violations in the filtering system adversely affect the protein metabolism in the body, its decomposition products are not completely eliminated, and accumulate in the blood. The smell of acetone when breathing also occurs during urate acid diathesis.

What to do if you smell from the mouth - treatment and drugs

mouth odor treatment

Since most often halitosis is just a symptom, treatment requires the disease that caused it. To do this, you must undergo an examination, having passed the tests prescribed by the doctor. Depending on the reason, medical or surgical treatment is carried out, for example:

  • the use of antibiotics or NSAIDs for inflammatory disease;
  • removal of tonsils with tonsillitis;
  • puncture of the sinuses when the accumulation of purulent contents in them;
  • treatment of carious lesions;
  • removal of a diseased tooth or inflamed pulp;
  • hyperthyroidism therapy;
  • treatment of increased acidity of the stomach or other pathologies of the digestive system.

Thorough oral hygiene helps reduce the intensity of an unpleasant odor - using a quality brush, dental floss, rinse and toothpaste with triclosan, carbamide peroxide, chlorhexidine, cetylpyridine.

You should not use rinses containing alcohol - they dry the mucous membrane, reducing the amount of saliva secreted.

Folk remedies for bad breath

  • Rinsing the mouth with warm water and essential oils - mint, sage, cloves - at the rate of 2 drops per full glass of water. Swallowing the solution is strictly prohibited, and the oils must be of high quality.
  • 10 minutes before a meal, you can chew dried juniper berries, anise seeds or fennel.
  • Rosehip tea - 1 tbsp. l 200-250 ml of boiling water, insist 25-30 minutes.
  • Rinse your mouth can be decoction kislitsy, St. John's wort.
  • When digestive disorders are useful syrup, oil or sea buckthorn juice.
  • When indigestion helps tea with ginger and honey, a decoction of chamomile, wormwood or dill seeds, flax seeds.
  • With low acidity, red and black currants, apples, juice from viburnum berries, honey are beneficial, and with increased acidity - carrot or potato juice, aloe-honey mixture, mint decoction and yarrow.

Any folk remedies can not be used uncontrollably, and before their use does not hurt to consult with a specialist.

Which doctor to contact?

It is possible to get rid of bad breath much faster, if you do not self-medicate, but seek help from a specialist. First, assess your condition and determine if there are other symptoms.

Toothache, bleeding or inflammation of the gums and other problems in the oral cavity is a reason to visit the dentist. Go to him, if there are no signs except for breath, there may be a need to remove tartar or plaque accumulated on the teeth.

Sore throat, nasal congestion, wheezing, cough - with such symptoms go to the otolaryngologist. If intestinal discomfort, constipation or diarrhea, heartburn, stomach pain is present, visit a gastroenterologist.

If the dentist does not find problems with the teeth and gums, and there are no other complaints, except for an unpleasant smell from the mouth, you should go to the therapist - it is quite possible that the existing disease is asymptomatic.


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