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Eye Inflammation: Treatment and Prevention, Causes and Types of Inflammation

Inflammation of the eye is a disease of any structure (sclera, cornea, conjunctiva, etc.) characterized by redness, swelling, pain, and decreased visual function. According to statistics, these pathological processes occupy the first place in the frequency of visits to an ophthalmologist.

Causes of eye inflammation are divided into 2 main groups:

  • associated with microorganisms;
  • amicrobial, which are based on systemic disorders of connective tissue, immunity, metabolism, etc. Microbes do not play a leading role here, they can join for the second time.

The most frequent pathogens of inflammatory processes in ophthalmology are:

  • streptococci;
  • pneumococci;
  • Toxoplasma (its role is especially significant for intrauterine infections, which manifest themselves in a child after birth);
  • viruses - adenoviruses, chicken pox , influenza, herpes;
  • fungi (they cause the development of numerous keratomycosis).

Eye inflammation

The progression of systemic diseases leads to the involvement of the eye structures into the pathological process. The most significant among these nosologies are:

  • Gout - deposition of crystalline uric acid in the organs (the joints are primarily affected);
  • Polyarthritis - multiple lesions of joints of various sizes associated with viral infections;
  • Rheumatism - autoimmune inflammation on the background of streptococcal infection;
  • Avitaminosis.

An increased incidence of inflammation of the eyeball and its accessory structures is observed when the person has predisposing factors:

  • Caries
  • Pathology of ENT organs
  • Traumatic eye damage
  • Allergic reactions
  • Diabetes
  • Blood disorders.

Content

Types of eye inflammation

Types of eye inflammation

Depending on the localization of pathological changes, eye inflammation can be of several types:

  • conjunctivitis - inflammation of the outer shell (conjunctiva);
  • scleritis;
  • keratitis - inflamed cornea;
  • uveitis - lesion of the choroid;
  • meibit, popularly called barley ;
  • dacryocystitis - inflammation of the lacrimal canal;
  • blepharitis - inflammation of the eyelids;
  • optic neuritis - inflammation of the nerve of the eye.

Symptoms of eye inflammation depend on the particular ophthalmologic disease. Their combination allows the doctor to establish an accurate diagnosis.

It is enough for a person to know only those signs, at the appearance of which it is necessary to turn to an ophthalmologist, and not to sit, waiting for the progression of the process.

Redness of the eye during inflammation is the main symptom. But to see it during an external examination is not always possible. For a person, it will not be noticeable if the internal structures of the eye are affected. However, other symptoms help to suspect trouble:

  • pain aggravated by movement of the eyes;
  • lacrimation;
  • eye tension;
  • Heightened sensitivity to light, leading to squinting and squinting.

Sometimes it is enough to move the eyelid to understand why these signs appeared. Inflammation under the eye is a sign of blepharitis. It is determined on the mucous under the eyelids in the form of point lesions, which can later suppurate and open spontaneously. In other cases, after talking with the patient, the doctor provides a more detailed objective objective examination of the eye, which helps to establish the final diagnosis:

  • inspection in the side light;
  • ophthalmoscopy - the study of the fundus;
  • ultrasound procedure;
  • definition of visual fields, etc.

Inflammation around the eyes most often indicates the ingress of allergens in the body. This is usually associated with demodicosis - tick-borne eyelashes. Therefore, in such a situation requires a specific study - the study of eyelashes under a microscope.

Eye inflammation treatment

Eye inflammation treatment

Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the eye depends on the cause of them. If this is a microbial process, the use of local forms of antibiotics — drops and ointments — is an essential component of therapy.

In case of bacterial inflammation, in which there are certain immune disorders, one cannot do without taking corticosteroid drugs. Antibiotics in this situation are shown only when attaching a bacterial infection.

Corticosteroids (Dexamethasone and others) are also prescribed topically in the form of drops and ointments. They exert their action by:

  • reducing the production of damaging antibodies;
  • blocking their binding to cellular receptors;
  • suppressing allergic reactions.

Against the background of treatment, taking into account the causative factor, it is not always possible to effectively relieve pain. For this purpose, eye drops are used for inflammation from the group of nonsteroids (Diclofenac, Naklofen and others). They are recommended to bury 3-4 times a day.

As you feel better, the frequency of instillation can be reduced. Usually their reception lasts 1-2 weeks. Preparations from this group as an independent means are used to treat inflammation of the eyelid.

At the same time, popular methods among people in the form of warming up (putting a hot egg, a bag of salt, etc.) among people are not only ineffective, but also dangerous. There is a possibility of blepharitis going into the abscess of the eyelid - its purulent inflammation.

Prevention of eye inflammation

Preventive measures for the prevention of inflammatory diseases of the eye are multidirectional:

  • timely detection and treatment of causal pathologies (gout, rheumatism, etc.) with the relevant specialists;
  • prevention of injuries, especially in some types of production (for this purpose, special means of protection are used);
  • washing hands to avoid direct infection in the eyes;
  • prompt access to an ophthalmologist when the first suspicious symptoms appear;
  • timely examination of women before pregnancy to prevent toxoplasma eye damage in newborns;
  • change of the vital image excluding overcooling.
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