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Inflammation of the ovaries in women: symptoms and treatment, drugs

Isolated ovarian inflammation is an acute or chronic inflammatory process that affects the female sex glands and causes a breakdown of their functions. As a separate disease is extremely rare.

This is because the outer lining of the ovaries is able to resist the penetration of the infection. In many cases, oophoritis is a response to inflammatory processes in adjacent organs. Most often accompanied by inflammation of the fallopian tubes and is considered one of the most common causes of impaired female fertility.


Causes of Ovarian Inflammation

Causes of Ovarian Inflammation

The main causes of inflammation are conditionally pathogenic or pathogenic bacteria. Inflammation causes gonococci, trichomonads, chlamydia, ureaplasma, streptococci, which enter the uterine appendages from the vagina in an ascending way.

The disease usually occurs in young women who live sexually and do not use barrier methods of contraception.
The main causes of oophoritis include:

  • inflammation of the fallopian tubes;
  • promiscuous sex life;
  • venereal diseases;
  • autoimmune pathologies;
  • hormonal disruptions ;
  • inflammation of neighboring organs (colon, appendix, bladder);
  • injuries of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.

Inflammation of the ovaries can be triggered by tuberculosis, childbirth and abortion, surgery on the pelvic organs and hypothermia.

These factors lead to a decrease in immunity and the development of bacterial flora, which is found in small quantities in the body of each person. In the absence of a specific response of the immune system, the pathogenic microflora multiplies vigorously, which leads to an inflammatory process.

The indirect causes of the development of oophoritis are:

  • frequent overwork;
  • stressful situations;
  • lack of sleep;
  • smoking;
  • vitamin and trace element deficiencies.

The risk of infectious inflammatory complications increases the use of intrauterine devices. This common contraceptive can act as a carrier of bacteria and also weaken local immunity.

Symptoms of ovarian inflammation in women

ovarian inflammation in women

The signs of inflammation are not specific, as they are similar to the signs of adnexitis, salpingitis, salpingoophoritis. Complaints of patients depend on the stage of the disease, each of which is distinguished by the features of its course. Pathology can have an acute, subacute and chronic course.

Symptoms of acute ovarian inflammation:

  • intense pain in the suprapubic region and the lumbar spine;
  • temperature rise;
  • copious discharge from the genital tract;
  • loss of appetite;
  • urination disorders;
  • discomfort during sexual contact;
  • deterioration of general well-being.

The more active the inflammatory process, the more pronounced the pain syndrome. Acute inflammation of the right ovary can occur as an attack of appendicitis, and inflammation of the left appendage is mistaken for renal colic. The pain can be throbbing, piercing, bursting or aching. It does not depend on the day of the menstrual cycle, the time of day.

The acute stage lasts from 5 to 15 days and without treatment is transformed into a chronic form. In the pelvic region adhesions are formed, in the folds of which there is a dormant infection, provoking the exacerbation of the chronic inflammatory process under adverse conditions. The disease lasts for many years, accompanied by intervals of exacerbations and remissions.

Chronic inflammation of the ovaries in women is manifested by the following symptoms:

  • pelvic pain of dull, aching nature without clear localization, extending into the groin and often into the vagina;
  • violation of the rhythm and nature of menstruation;
  • periodic scanty secretions from the genitals;
  • depressed psychological state;
  • violation of sexual function;
  • pain during intercourse;
  • infertility

Exacerbation of the chronic course can be triggered by frequent changes of sexual partners, lack of personal hygiene, hypothermia.

Ovarian Inflammation and Pregnancy

Ovarian Inflammation and Pregnancy With inflammation of the ovaries, the chances of getting pregnant are significantly reduced. The formation of adhesions in the chronic process leads to the fact that the path of the sperm to the egg of a woman is blocked, conception becomes impossible.

With the onset of pregnancy, amid inflammation of the ovaries, there may be a threat of termination as a result of placental insufficiency or fetal intrauterine infection.

Before planning a pregnancy, it is necessary to eliminate the disease or its manifestations. In order to preserve the fertility function, it is better to prevent such a disease and constantly take preventive measures to eliminate the possibility of infection with pathogenic microflora.


Leading signs can also be symptoms of abdominal diseases, which is why it is difficult to identify these pathologies in women.

Diagnostic methods:

  • gynecological examination of the patient;
  • laboratory diagnostics (study of blood and urine for the level of leukocytes);
  • definition of vaginal microflora;
  • laparoscopy;
  • ultrasound of the pelvic organs (additional method);
  • hysterosalpingoscopy.

To test the body for the presence of infectious pathogens such diagnostic methods as PCR, RIF, and ELISA can be applied. The most informative is laparoscopy, which allows you to determine the stage of the inflammatory process and look at the tissues of the ovary with an endoscope.

The main indication for laparoscopy is chronic pain in the suprapubic area, inflammation of the ovaries of unknown origin and prolonged infertility.

Treatment of ovarian inflammation

Treatment of inflammation Only after establishing the diagnosis and determining the stage of the disease, it becomes clear how to treat inflammation of the ovaries in women. Therapy depends on the infection that provoked it and the patient's tolerance of drugs. The treatment is phased and each of the stages has its own methods and therapeutic goals.

Patients with acute oophoritis should be hospitalized with the mandatory use of antibacterial drugs. A doctor is prescribed a comprehensive treatment. Severe pains are relieved by painkillers.

In parallel, antihistamine, antiviral, and immunostimulating preparations are used. After reducing the symptoms of acute inflammation, continued treatment on an outpatient basis is indicated.

During this period, physiotherapy is carried out under the control of clinical and laboratory data: medicinal electrophoresis, radon baths, magnetic therapy, phonophoresis with magnesium or calcium.

Treatment of chronic ovarian inflammation occurs over a long time. Therapeutic measures are aimed at achieving an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect, as well as at restoring the functions of the hormonal, sexual, nervous and vascular systems. Appointed acupuncture, acupressure, psychotherapy, has a beneficial effect of spa treatment.

An important part of therapy is the restoration of the menstrual cycle. It is necessary to treat the pathology methodically so that the ovary does not stop functioning, which is important for women planning a pregnancy.

Only after the regulation of ovarian function can you begin to address the problem of infertility. With extensive cicatricial and adhesive processes in the pelvis and purulent formations, surgical treatment with dissection and removal of adhesions is indicated.

Drugs for treatment

Treatment of ovarian inflammation

  • Antibiotics for treating ovarian inflammation

The pharmaceutical market is quite a large selection of antibacterial drugs. But the selection of antibiotics for inflammation of the ovaries in women should deal with a doctor. To obtain the effect of their use, it is necessary not only to select the right drug group, but also to calculate the single and course dose. Antibiotics with a broad spectrum of action are usually prescribed.

Antibacterial drugs used to treat oophoritis are classified into three groups - pennicillins (ampicillin, amoxicillin), cephalosporins (cefazolin, ceftazidime), aminoglycosides (gentamicin, netilmicin). They need to be taken for at least 7-10 days, since early refusal of treatment can lead to the emergence of a drug-resistant infection, which is much more difficult to treat.

  • Candles for treating inflammation

Auxiliary value in the treatment has local therapy. To relieve pain and heat, reduce unpleasant symptoms of inflammation of the ovaries in women use candles.

This dosage form is prescribed only in conjunction with other methods of treatment. Vaginal suppositories containing natamycin (Pimafucin), chlorhexidine digluconate (Hexicon), povidone-iodine (Betadine) have a suppressive effect on bacteria, fungi and viruses.

Candles, having in its composition indomethacin, diclofenac (Voltaren), relieve inflammation and sedative effect on the mucous membrane of the vagina. They do not have many side effects due to local action.


An acute oophoritis can get the character of a chronic process lasting months and years. Rational use of drugs for inflammation of the ovaries in women prevents the transition of the inflammatory process to the chronic phase, when irreversible changes occur in the form of scars and adhesive processes.

Pathological outcomes of pregnancy (miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy) and infertility are also among the consequences of oophoritis. Complication of exacerbated inflammation may be ovarian suppuration. Such a condition requires prompt surgical intervention - a possible ovarian rupture leads to the development of peritonitis.


Due to the fact that genital infections are a frequent and main cause of oophoritis, it is very important to apply barrier methods (condoms) and local (suppositories, vaginal tablets) contraception, reducing the risk of getting sexually transmitted diseases. Indeed, for the development of most infectious diseases that are sexually transmitted, even a single unprotected sexual intercourse is sufficient.

Preventive measures include:

  • visiting the gynecologist at least twice a year;
  • personal hygiene;
  • timely diagnosis of infectious diseases of the genital tract;
  • treatment of non-sexual chronic infections;
  • fortified food;
  • refusal of alcohol, nicotine;
  • immunity strengthening.

In case of chronic oophoritis, the sanatorium-resort treatment, which has an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic effect and prevents the formation of adhesions, will help to avoid exacerbation of the disease. The preventive measures taken in time have a general health-improving effect, they allow to avoid disability, antibiotic therapy and improve the quality of life.

Thus, ovarian inflammation is a disease leading to impaired reproductive performance in women. It requires a comprehensive and long-term therapy. But medical treatment alone is not enough. In order to permanently eliminate oophoritis, it is necessary to take a different look at your lifestyle, begin to adhere to the daily regimen and eat fully.

Elena Filatova
2018-02-08 05:31:18
thanks for the article, very useful

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