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Inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck: symptoms and treatment, causes of inflammation

Lymphadenitis (inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck) is a symptom of a whole group of pathological processes and diseases, both infectious and diseases of the lymphatic system. This system, which includes a large number of lymphatic capillaries, small and large vessels, trunks, ducts and nodes, is itself one of the body’s defense mechanisms (immunity). Responsible for the secretion of lymph and its transport.

An important role in biological protection is performed by a network of lymph nodes located in different systems and organs of a person. The capsule of the nodes is filled with a loose stroma (substance), which plays the role of enriching the lymph passing through it with antibodies. Filtration from foreign inclusions and damaged cells prone to tumor degeneration.

The main functional properties of the lymph nodes are expressed:

  • the process of cell formation that supports the normal functioning of the immune system (phagocytes, lymphocytes, antibodies);
  • providing drainage or drainage from the tissues and organs of the extracellular fluid;
  • maintaining its even balance between blood and lymph;
  • maintaining stable solvency of metabolic processes.

Inflammatory processes can affect single cervical lymph nodes and seize the entire lymphatic network, located in the neck (front and back, submandibular and occipital, parotid and ear).

Content

Causes of inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck, the genesis

Inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck

The causes of inflammation in cervical lymphadenitis are associated with the reaction of natural killer immunity (macrophages) to any pathological conditions in the body.

It can be:

  1. Infections in the upper respiratory tract or oral cavity.
  2. The overall decrease in the immune factor due to long-term infections, hematological syndrome, hypothermia, vitamin deficiency, persistent neuropsychiatric stress and stress conditions.
  3. The development of tumor processes in the lymphoid tissue.
  4. Violations of tissue integrity.

To trigger the inflammatory response can:

  • prolonged alcohol effect;
  • disturbances in metabolic processes;
  • failure of secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland;
  • connective tissue pathology;
  • hypersensitive reactions to antigens.

Symptoms of inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck

Symptoms of inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck

The clinical symptoms of inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck are determined by the species affiliation of the pathology.

Purulent form of the disease is characterized by: constant throbbing pains, fixed knots, soldered to the adjacent reddened tissues. The development of tumor formation, bordered by smooth edges, with a heterogeneous structure.

The edges of the tumor can be of different consistency - dense on the one hand and soft on the other. Its pressure causes a clear, crisp sound. There is a breakdown accompanied by high pyretic (up to 39 ° C - 41 ° C) temperature, headaches and tachycardia.

Purulent form of pathology is dangerous due to the rapid development of inflammatory reactions that can spread throughout the body.

With a non-purulent form of the disease, the nodes are enlarged, but mobile, there is a slight compaction. Pressure is reflected by pain.

The species of the disease is determined by the fluid structure prevailing in the area of ​​inflammation.

  1. Purulent form - purulent predominance in the lymphoid fluid.
  2. In the hemorrhagic form of the pathological process, blood predominates in the liquid.
  3. The fibrous type of lymphadenitis is characterized by an increased content of fibrin clots in the lymphoid fluid.
  4. Serous pathological process - the formation of turbid protein fluid in the place of development of the inflammatory process.

General signs of the disease reflect the symptoms of the underlying disease at the site of the process. For example, if the cause is an infection, then the main symptoms will correspond to “her illness”, and inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck is one of the diagnostic factors. Elimination of the underlying disease, simultaneously eliminates the signs of lymphatic inflammation.

Mild inflammation, with a slight inflammation of the nodes and mild pain when pressing and swallowing food, cause infections of a long, chronic course. A pronounced breakdown is observed with prolonged exposure to cold and respiratory infections. Such conditions require diagnostic detection of infectious foci and their complete rehabilitation.

If the clinical picture is manifested by prolonged inflammation of the lymph nodes (more than six months), the nodes are painful, with a dense and solid structure - this may indicate a tumor neoplasm. Delay in diagnostic tests can be life threatening.

Diagnostic examination

Diagnosis of lymphadenitis of the cervical nodes is based on the visual examination of the patient, collection of the history of the disease, the states of the preceding disease (trauma, surgical intervention, etc.).

According to the results of general analyzes revealed the causative factor of the disease. As additional measures specifying the diagnosis, are assigned:

  • Ultrasound examination;
  • X-ray or CT examination;
  • sampling of lymph for biopsy, in case of suspected tumor process;
  • in chronic inflammatory reactions - cytological and histological examination.

From the accuracy of diagnostic findings depends on the preparation of an appropriate effective treatment plan and competent selection of drugs against inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck.

Treatment methods

treatment of inflamed lymph nodes in the neck

Depending on the course of the disease - acute or chronic - a program of therapy and treatment of the inflamed lymph nodes in the neck is prescribed.

The inflammatory response is not independent, but manifests itself as a secondary syndrome of provocative factors. Therefore, treatment tactics are not aimed at eliminating symptoms, but at treating provoking diseases.

Elimination of inflammatory reactions is achieved by the method of correction of the immune system and medication.

Appointed:

  • drugs glucocorticoids ("Prednisone", "Deltason" or "Medrol");
  • immunostimulating drugs;
  • multivitamins and high-vitamin C preparations;
  • physiotherapy - galvanization, administration of drugs by electrophoresis, UHF therapy.

Antibiotics, for inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck, are prescribed in suppurative processes to prevent the further spread of infection.

They are selected according to the specificity of a specific pathogen. These may be drugs and analogues of Vilprafen, Benzylpenicillin, Azithromycin, Septrin, etc.

In case of failure of drug therapy, the foci of suppuration are surgically opened. The affected area is cleaned from pus and dead connective tissue, followed by drainage.

Features of inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck of a child

The manifestation of inflammatory reactions in the lymph nodes on the neck in children are observed, mainly from five to seven years of age. This is due to the unformed lymphatic system, which is not able to provide full barrier functions. Only by 9-10 years old she is able to stop infection. The disease in children is characterized by active development, accompanied by:

  • intoxication;
  • sleep and appetite disturbances;
  • severe swelling of the neck;
  • symptoms of headaches.

With inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck, the temperature in children can rise to 39 ° C. Often this reaction may be due to vaccination.

The danger is that in the chronic course of the disease the child may feel quite normal, it is possible to identify the disease only when probing the nodes.

This situation is threatened by neglect of the disease, which may be complicated by the manifestation of the myocardium - lethargy, pale skin and shortness of breath. Children are lagging behind in weight, tire easily and often refuse food altogether.

Contributes to the development of the disease in children: weakening of the immune system, an excessive increase in pathogenic microorganisms and the very damage of lymphoid tissues. Only timely examination and treatment can enhance the immune defense.

Inflammatory reactions in the cervical lymph nodes in adults and children can manifest themselves in various forms and over, an advisory consultation with an otolaryngologist, infectious disease specialist, TB specialist, pediatrician or oncologist will help resolve the situation.

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