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Zika virus - what is it? Causative agent, symptoms, distribution and treatment

The first mention of the virus “Zeke” is dated 1947, when it was found in rhesus monkeys in the tropical forests of Uganda. Human infection with this pathogen is noted already seven years later (1952).

If in the 50s there were only small outbreaks of the disease, today, they are in the thousands. The virus is rapidly spreading to subtropical and tropical regions of the southern United States, Asian and African regions, the Japanese islands and Japan itself. Today, it is already registered in European countries.

Special attention to infection is due to the difference in its effect on adults, especially women in the situation, manifesting symptoms of fever. And children of the fetal and postpartum period, manifesting serious pathological changes in the central nervous system (microcephaly), which are incompatible with life.

At this time, it has been proven that the “Zika” virus is transmitted only with the bites of certain mosquitoes, but versions of transmission through blood transfusion (blood transfusion) and sexual intercourse are not excluded.

Content

Pathogen: the path of infection

Zika virus

At this stage, scientists identify two types of carriers of the Zika fever virus — the mosquitoes of the yellow-sex Kusaki (Aegypti Aedes) and the Tiger Asian Mosquito (Aedes albopictus). Individuals live in regions and countries with hot climatic conditions and high humidity.

The main process of development of the pathogen and its life cycles, take place in the body of mosquitoes and mosquitoes infected after being bitten by an infected object (primate or human). The main condition underlying viral cyclic development is due to the need to constantly maintain an elevated temperature regime in the body of insects, which is facilitated by a tropical and subtropical environment.

Human infection occurs through the bite of insects that are carriers of the virion, which are very active during the day and extremely fertile.

A large number of eggs are laid in the open nature and in deaf rooms. The pathogen is a non-cellular virion, consisting of a protein structure that promotes its penetration into human cells.

Here it is synthesized using the reproduction of the protein elements of the affected human cells and the production of its own polyproteins to reproduce its own kind. Intracellular synthesis of the virus leads to the destruction of human cells and the exit from them of numerous offspring of viruses.

Primary pathomorphological pathologies are immediately exposed to bone marrow (dendritic) Langerhans cells in the area of ​​the applied bite, with a predominant lesion of the nuclear structure.

Further spread of the virus "Zika" in the body goes through numerous ramifications of the lymphatic system and the circulatory vascular network. The highest predisposition to the disease was observed in pregnant women (via the placental barrier) and in children.

Symptoms of zika virus in humans

Symptoms of Zika virus in humans

The low level of knowledge of the pathology makes it impossible to determine the exact latency of the pathogen. According to the hypothetical version of scientists, it is determined by a very insignificant period from the process of introducing the virion into the body, until the manifestation of clinical specific signs.

Symptoms of the Zika virus in humans are similar to signs of similar infections caused by arboviruses. Manifest themselves:

  • pyretic fever, debilitating patient for five days;
  • macular and papular itchy skin rash (exanthema), mainly in the upper part of the body;
  • possible new eruptions in the febrile period;
  • inflammatory process in the conjunctiva (rarely purulent);
  • photophobia and pain in the eyes;
  • muscle weakness and pain;
  • arthralgia of small and large articular groups;
  • moderate headache syndrome for a week, and for a longer time;
  • decreased physical activity.

Sometimes there are manifestations of weak signs of dyspeptic symptoms without any connection with poisoning. In the age category of those infected, unlike children, Zika fever does not cause complicated variants of the course of the disease, but in children, the complication appears with prolonged acute polyradiculoneuritis:

  • lethargic paresis syndrome;
  • loss of sensitivity;
  • paroxysmal autonomic disorders.

The effects of Zika virus in children with fetoplacental infection are manifested by signs of microcephaly - varying degrees of oligophrenia (from the weakest stage to deep idiocy), deformation of the facial bones and small size of the skull.

Unfortunately, severe neurological deficiency leads to the death of newborns in the first day of their lives.

Zika virus: diagnosis

Some clinical manifestations of Zika virus symptoms cannot verify the diagnosis, since the signs of infection are similar to those of other forms of fever, for example, malarial, chikungunya, or Dengue hemorrhagic fever. The maximum information content is given by:

  1. Blood test for viral RNA detection.
  2. RPC analysis of plasma, saliva and urine for the detection of nucleic acid (carried out no later than 10 days from the moment of the first signs of infection).
  3. Serological blood tests (immunofluorescent and immunofermental) - detection of antibodies lgG and lgM in the patient's body.

Non-specific diagnostic criteria include the presence of a very low level of leukocytes in the plasma against the background of an increased number of lymphocytes.

Medical events

This is how the treatment that is used to confirm the diagnosis can be described, since the main tactics for treating Zika virus today are not. Directed action on the relief of clinical signs.

  1. Antipyretic drugs at high temperatures "Paracetamol" (according to indications);
  2. Antihistamines, for relieving itchy symptoms - “Tavegil” or “Suprastin”;
  3. Relief of intoxication - advanced mode of drinking clean water without gas (at least 2 liters);
  4. Rehydration solutions - “Regidron”, “Trisol”, “Atoxil”.
  5. Infusion therapy - intravenous drip injection solution "Reopolyuglyukina."

Preventive measures

zika virus prevention The initial part of preventive measures against Zika virus infection is the elimination of the source of mosquitoes. To this end, near the person’s stay (meaning open terraces, private houses, summer cottages) there should not be open tanks with stagnant water. Eliminating the source of insect accumulation will significantly reduce the risk of infection.

With the same purpose, you should use synthetic repellents, use anti-mosquito nets, as a protective barrier. In the epidemic region, it is desirable to wear light-colored clothing.

Due to the fact that the virus can be transmitted by blood transfusion, sexually and fetoplacental, a careful selection of the donor, condoms and restriction of attendance by pregnant women in endemic regions will help to protect themselves.

The processing of an open natural area should be handled by administrative regional bodies.

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