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Chickenpox in children: causes, symptoms and treatment, incubation period

Chickenpox (chickenpox) - an acute viral disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets, is characterized by the appearance of a bubble rash, the development of fever. Specific therapy does not exist, the prognosis for life is favorable.

It is probably difficult to find the second such contagious disease. Chickenpox is infectious in second place among all infections that are spread by airborne droplets.

That is why in places with large accumulations of children (in organized children's institutions) outbreaks of the disease are noted. Since chickenpox is very contagious, almost everyone gets to know it in childhood. The disease leaves a stable, lifelong immunity.

In extremely rare cases, with a marked decrease in immunity, repeated cases of chickenpox were noted.


From whom can you get chickenpox?

first day of the rash, photo 2

first day of the rash, photo 2

As a rule, they infect chickenpox when they cough and sneeze, and the distance dangerous for contact is 20-25 meters. Gauze mask can not save from infection.

Will the child get chickenpox further? Yes. There are cases when viruses penetrated through the ventilation ducts through several floors, causing outbreaks.

The source of infection is:

  • a sick person (adult, child), on whose body there is a vesicular (vesicular) rash, which continues to “pour”;
  • a person who is at the end of the incubation period for chickenpox, 2-3 days before the development of the disease. It is this incident that is to blame for the development of all outbreaks of the disease in kindergartens: after all, those who infect others still do not feel anything themselves;
  • a person with shingles (herpes zoster). So called bubble rash, which appears above the nerves. Most often, the virus chooses the intercostal nerves, facial and trigeminal nerves.

The link between chickenpox and herpes zoster

In the latter case, infection occurs because shingles and chicken pox are caused by the same virus.

Only the first contact with it is manifested by chickenpox, and after immunity has been formed - the virus “does not have enough strength” to cause a common infection, and it is able to infect only local parts of the body.

It is important to understand that after a child has had chickenpox, the virus remains defeated, but it does not go out of the body until 25% of those who have been ill.

He hides in the nervous tissue, and in the case of a cold or a pronounced decrease in immunity, he “comes out of the nerves”, manifesting himself as “paths” along the nerve trunks.

The first signs of chickenpox in children, the incubation period

The first signs of chickenpox in children

chicken pox in children photos of the initial stage

Chickenpox symptoms in previously unwell adults and children are similar, but children suffer the disease much more easily.

  1. The incubation period of chickenpox in children lasts on average 10 to 20 days, the last 2 to 3 days before the rash, the baby is contagious to others;
  2. The debut of the disease is similar to any viral infection: a sharp rise in temperature to 39 degrees and above, fatigue, weakness, headaches, increased skin sensitivity;
  3. Rash. The appearance of a characteristic rash confirms the diagnosis of the disease without any tests. Initially, there are bumps that turn into bubbles filled with transparent contents with a tight top. Bubbles can merge. Then the tire of a bubble (vesicles) flakes, bubbles dry up, turning into crusts. Crusts fall off, they can not be torn off, as scars can remain.

The first day of a rash is not the initial stage of chickenpox in children and is not the first day of the disease!

In fact, at first you can find one or two bubbles when examining a child, and only then the rapid deterioration of the condition begins. Just a few people pay attention.

The appearance of a characteristic rash, photo 3

The appearance of a characteristic rash 10-20 days after infection, photo 3

All vesicles cause itching, they appear everywhere, including mucous membranes. The only exceptions are the feet and palms, which contain a special layer - the eleidine layer, which gives shine and greater durability to these areas of the skin.

The total number of bubbles can reach several hundred and even thousands.

The further course of chickenpox

With chickenpox, a bubble rash may appear in "waves", in the form of spills. Each wave may be accompanied by deterioration of the general condition.

After 5-7 days, the rash of the first wave is a crust, and the rash of the later waves is blisters, and fresh bumps.

Thus, on the baby all stages of rash development are visible. After the “last falling” happens, the state of health improves and the baby is recovering.

Treatment of chickenpox in children

Treatment of chickenpox in children

"Mark" rash, there we will definitely see the emergence of a new

Since the specific antiviral therapy for chickenpox in children has not been developed - the main treatment is careful care of the baby.

In the event that one or both of the parents did not have chickenpox, they should immediately think about whom they can replace themselves with, since their infection is almost inevitable.

But, fortunately, such coincidences are rare. Sometimes the parent does not know that he was sick as a child - if the chicken pox passed “softly” - with the appearance of several bubbles (which no one paid attention to) and a slight temperature. Such cases are very rare, but they do happen.

The basic principles of treatment are as follows:

  • Lubricate each bubble on the skin with green paint, fukartsinom or Castellani paint.

It dries bubbles a little and disinfects when the tire breaks. But this is not the main thing: the marking of bubbles is made daily, and only fresh elements are painted.

In one "beautiful" day, it is discovered that there are no new drops, and all the bubbles are "marked". This means the end of replication (reproduction) of the virus in the body, as well as the fact that the baby will soon cease to be infectious.

  • It is necessary to fight itching.

All the elements of the rash itch, and if the scabs are torn off or the bubbles are injured, scars are formed after the chickenpox, which remain for life, and may cause an aesthetic defect, especially on the face.

You can use antihistamines that are approved in children (for example, "Fenistil - gel"), which is allowed from the age of 1 year.

  • For the prevention of scratching at night, a child can be given herbal sedatives at night, and wear scratching hands;
  • It is necessary to dress the baby more often, not to muffle, and maintain a moderate temperature. In the heat, the child sweats, and the sweat erodes the elements of the rash, which intensifies the itching.
  • with an abundance of elements on the mucous membranes and in the mouth, it is painful for the baby to eat.

Food should be liquid, nutritious and easily digestible. Liquids and vitamins, he should receive enough, as plenty of drink helps to remove viral intoxication.

  • Since the fever is a defensive reaction of the body, it is possible to "bring down" the temperature with the help of children's Panadol and other anti-inflammatory drugs only at numbers of 38.5 and higher.

When can I bathe after chickenpox?

Children can and should be bathed, but only after fresh bubbles have ceased to form, and old ones have dried up in crusts. Water should not be hot - a bath at room temperature with the addition of baking soda will help relieve itching.

You can not use a washcloth, after a bath you do not need to wipe, and get soaked with a towel.

When can I bathe after chickenpox? Many parents read contradictory information on the Internet: sometimes it is said that you can bathe during the period of sleep. In fact, it is forbidden: after lying in a bath, a person makes clean water dirty.

Microbes from natural folds, a crotch get to it. In the event that the skin is whole, it is not dangerous. But if there are burst bubbles on it, then the surface beneath them represents erosion - a wound that resembles a fresh callus removed, only less.

Therefore, any contact of this wound (and there are dozens of them) with water must be excluded.

It is good to wash with a washcloth and wash your hair only after the last crusts have fallen off.

How many days is chickenpox contagious?

You need to be well aware of all stages of the disease. The main guideline for parents is not the temperature and severity of general well-being, but the timing of the end of the pouring.

It happens that for 2 - 3 days from the onset of the disease the baby feels good, and the rash continues to pour. This means that he continues to remain infectious, sick, and must be in isolation.

As a rule, after the termination of the pouring, 5 days are counted. By this time, the last vesicles (containing infectious viral fluid) are drying out. Crusts are not dangerous, and the baby can be brought out for a walk.

In this state, he will not infect anyone, but after the disease, his immunity is weakened and he can become infected himself.

When does a chicken pox rash appear?

The rash appears at the end of the incubation period, as it was written earlier - it can last from 1 to 3 weeks. The first signs of infection (before the rash) will be very similar to the symptoms of a common cold - there may be fever, lethargy, moodiness, etc.

When the first pink spots appear, a few millimeters in size, followed by the rest very quickly - it will be clear for sure - this is chicken pox.

What is dangerous chickenpox? - complications

Dangerous complications are not pigment spots after chickenpox, but more serious conditions:

  • The accession of a secondary infection, suppuration of the elements of the rash.
  • Viral herpetic encephalitis.

As mentioned above, viruses have tropism for nervous tissue. Therefore, it is very important to be treated, to comply with bed rest and carefully observe the behavior of the baby: the symptoms of encephalitis are movement coordination disorders, tremors, weakness in the limbs, behavior change.

  • Acute hepatic encephalopathy.

Appears with the abuse of aspirin and drugs containing it to "bring down" the temperature. Nausea, vomiting, inhibition, depression of consciousness, convulsions.

There is no treatment for this condition; only the maintenance of vital functions is performed. Mortality is quite high. Therefore, children should not be given aspirin, but only paracetamol.

Prevention of chickenpox in children

Vaccination against chickenpox in children is an important part of the vaccination schedule. Once the baby is 12 months old and there is no medical allotment, vaccination can begin. It gives stable protection for many years - about 10 years.

Chickenpox Vaccination

Chickenpox Vaccination

The second option is to have a baby chickenpox in the “natural order”. This gives a more durable (lifelong) immunity, and the disease in childhood is much easier.

One of the most effective and safe drugs is live vaccine "Varilriks" production GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Belgium. The cost of vaccination is about 5 thousand rubles.

But it is not always possible to get chickenpox in mild and at the right age. Sometimes you need to vaccinate children and non-diseased adults who are in the “risk group”.

These are patients suffering from oncohematological diseases, patients after organ transplantation, receiving cytotoxic drugs and immunosuppressive therapy. They have a high risk of developing complicated forms of the disease.

Chickenpox - ICD code 10

The international classification of diseases (ICD 10) chicken pox (chickenpox) is:

Class I. Some infectious and parasitic diseases (A00 — B99)

B00 — B09 - Viral infections characterized by lesions of the skin and mucous membranes

  • B01 Chickenpox (varicella)
  • B01.0 Chicken pox with meningitis (G02.0 *)
  • B01.1 Chicken pox with encephalitis (G05.1 *)
  • B01.2 Chicken Pox with Pneumonia (J17.1 *)
  • B01.8 Chicken pox with other complications
  • B01.9 Chicken Pox without complications

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