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Varicose veins in the legs, symptoms and treatment

What it is? Varicose veins are a disease in which the veins are affected and thinned. The main distinguishing feature is the formation of "nodes" in the vessels of the venous level.

Over time, they are filled with blood clots that pose a serious danger to humans. In some cases, varicose veins may be accompanied by inflammation of the vascular wall.

The main reasons are factors and risks.

The causes of varicose veins are not finalized or specified by medical science. However, predisposing factors are known that may significantly increase the likelihood of developing this pathology:

  • inactivity;
  • smoking and drinking;
  • hyperglycemia;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • genetic background;
  • overweight.

Among the predisposing factors, inactivity, especially throughout the day, stands out as the primary cause leading to varicose veins. This factor is most significant for people with sedentary work - drivers, operators, civil servants and computer scientists, etc. The list is endless, because At present, the proportion of people engaged in sedentary labor has increased.

Varicose veins in the legs

Alcohol and tobacco lead to an increase in the diameter of the venous vessels, creating the prerequisites for the development of varicose veins in the legs. The causes of the disease also lie in the genetic background of a person.

This factor, unlike the others, is unmodifiable and patients cannot influence it. According to statistics, many people have a genetic predisposition for varicose veins.

Therefore, they need particularly careful care of their bodies, paying close attention to modifiable factors. Patients with a burdened genetic history of varicose veins must quit smoking, alcohol and a sedentary lifestyle.

Excess blood sugar, not metabolized by the liver to glycogen, can further damage the veins and arteries. Patients with diabetes at risk for varicose veins.

Cholesterol deposits on the walls of blood vessels have a similar effect. It is especially pronounced on deep veins, since superficial less susceptible to atherosclerosis. The latter state is promoted by irrational and unbalanced nutrition, with the dominance of animal fats and the absence of plant fiber.

The causes of varicose veins become especially significant when overweight increases the load on the heart. It leads to slower blood circulation, especially pronounced in the lower limbs. In addition, obesity is accompanied by an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, and this is the background for the development of congestive processes in the venous vessels.


Symptoms of varicose veins in the legs

Symptoms of varicose veins in the legs

The first signs of varicose veins can be seen by the end of the day - they are manifested by swelling of the legs, usually preceded by a period of long standing or walking. As a rule, after a night's sleep, the swelling completely disappears. However, in the advanced stages, it acquires a stable character and persists constantly, regardless of the time of day.

The presence of edema syndrome, localized in the legs and ankles, can be checked independently. To do this, measure the circumference at the level of the ankle joint twice a day:

  • after waking up
  • before bedtime.

If the differences are equal to 1 cm or more - this confirms the existing violations of the venous outflow and such people need advice from a phlebologist. In the initial stages of the disease, these symptoms quickly disappear after the person is in a horizontal position for several hours.

The beginning progression of varicose veins is characterized by the appearance of nodes protruding above the skin surface. They can be both single and multiple. Most often they are detected from the inner surface of the legs and thighs.

Long standing or walking, as well as prolonged stay in a sitting position, leads to the appearance of new symptoms of varicose veins on the legs:

  • feeling of bursting, especially in calves;
  • feeling of heaviness in the legs;
  • their rapid fatigue;
  • acute or aching pain, most pronounced in places of varicose extensions;
  • cramps developing in the calf muscles, especially in the evening and even during sleep.

The appearance of convulsive contractions is associated with impaired metabolic processes. A prerequisite for this is a developing venous stasis. On its background, tissues experience a state of hypoxia, leading to increased convulsive muscle readiness.

Therefore, if a person has seizures, dopplerography is required. With its help, the state of the venous link in the body is evaluated, since varicose veins in the initial stages may be asymptomatic.

Clinical symptoms of varicose veins, photo

Clinical symptoms of varicose veins, photo 1

photo 1

Clinical symptoms of varicose veins, photo 2

photo 2

The clinical symptoms of varicose veins help to suggest this diagnosis. Therefore, we summarize them:

  • pain in the legs when walking;
  • pain sensations detected during palpation of the inflamed veins;
  • total aches in the lower limbs;
  • evening and night muscle cramps;
  • feeling of heaviness and fullness in the lower limbs, especially in the ankle area;
  • visually determined tortuous veins with varicose extensions - they rise above the level of the skin (this symptom is determined only with the superficial form of the disease, with deep lesion of the veins it is impossible to identify this symptom);
  • swelling of the legs (with varicose dilatation decrease in a horizontal position, unlike other diseases).

Varicose veins treatment

Varicose veins treatment

Treatment of varicose veins in the legs should be carried out comprehensively, including non-pharmacological methods and pharmacological correction. When indications arise, surgical intervention is performed. These are the general principles of care for patients with varicose veins.

Of non-drug methods , with this disease it is recommended to wear special elastic tights, bandages or stockings. They create the necessary compression that supports the veins in tone. Blood flows more easily to the heart, and venous congestion is eliminated. In such conditions, the vascular wall can not expand with the formation of subsequent nodes.

Exercise plays a significant therapeutic and prophylactic role, which help prevent the progression of the disease:

  • walking at a fast pace;
  • gymnastics;
  • various water activities;
  • swimming.

However, not all physical exercises can be recommended for varicose veins. Patients with this diagnosis should exclude sports exercises with a large load on the legs:

  • Weightlifting;
  • tennis;
  • jumps.

drugs for the treatment of symptoms of varicose veins in the legs

The next stage of treatment is pharmacological correction. The choice of the drug is carried out by a doctor. Prescribed drugs are divided into several groups:

1. Vein tone regulators - venotonic drugs. These include:

  • Detralex;
  • Rutoside;
  • Glivenol;
  • Troxevasin;
  • Endothelone;
  • Eskuzan.

2. Drugs that help prevent the formation of dangerous blood clots:

  • Pentoxifylline;
  • Aspirin;
  • Anticoagulants, incl. and ointments based on them (the most famous among them are Heparin and Lioton).

Surgical treatment of varicose veins

Surgical treatment of varicose veins In cases of ineffectiveness of drug therapy, surgical treatment is indicated. It consists in the removal of pathologically changed veins or in the introduction of solutions that allow gluing together the walls of a varicose dilated vessel (sclerotherapy).

Surgical treatment of the disease is characterized by high efficiency. However, do not forget about operational risk. For example, in obese people it is higher than that of thin ones. The duration of the operation also plays an important role in determining the operational risk - the shorter the operation, the less likelihood of thrombus formation. Therefore, it is very important to choose a highly qualified surgeon who technically and quickly removes veins.

Modern phlebology has various methods of operation for varicose veins. The choice in favor of one or another is determined by a specific clinical case. In this case, the doctor must take into account the following factors:

  • are there any complications of the disease;
  • what are associated diseases;
  • what is the degree of operational risk for the patient;
  • how likely is relapse, etc.

The most common methods are:

Phlebectomy is an operation for varicose legs, which involves the removal of pathologically changed veins. This intervention was first performed at the dawn of the 20th century. It is quite effective and is used so far, but with some improvements.

Today's surgery performs phlebectomy for various modifications, depending on the author of the change. This surgical intervention can be performed on large vessels, as well as on surface vessels that have a small diameter. To remove a vein, a small incision is made on the skin and the affected vessel is removed through the probe.

Minimally invasive techniques - imply coagulation by electric current or the use of freezing with liquid nitrogen. Recently, laser therapy has become widely used. It has fewer side effects, is more productive and technically simple. Its main drawback is the high cost.

Folk remedies for the treatment of varicose veins

At home, folk remedies are used to relieve symptoms and treat varicose veins in the legs, they increase the effect of pharmacological therapy prescribed by the doctor. Such means can be recommended:

Nettle. The leaves of the plant are dried. After that, boil water in a volume of 500 ml and pour them. Better to do it in a thermos. Infusion time - about half an hour. With the help of a sieve filter and a third part taken three times a day 50 minutes before a meal.

Apple vinegar. It improves the activity of the coagulation and anticoagulation system, contributes to the normalization of the state of the blood vessels. To achieve a therapeutic effect, they lubricate the lesion sites twice a day, as well as ingest 2 teaspoons of vinegar per cup of water. On the day you need to drink from 2 to 3 glasses.

идеально подойдет для ускорения заживления трофических язв, образовавшихся на фоне длительного существования варикозной болезни. Fresh potatoes are ideal for accelerating the healing of trophic ulcers formed on the background of the long existence of varicose veins. To do this, it is rubbed on a grate and the resulting gruel is applied to the ulcerative defect with a layer 1 cm thick, covering it with a bandage.

Exposure should be 4-5 hours. After that, the gruel is changed to a new one or moistened with a bandage in freshly made potato juice.

— готовят настойку, применяемую наружно. Flowers of white acacia - prepare the tincture used externally. It is especially effective in thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the thrombosed vein). The affected areas are abundantly greased and ground.

Hop cones. Approximate calculation - 1 tablespoon of crushed raw materials and 200 ml of boiling water. Heat the steam bath for 15 minutes.

Take three times during the day before meals and 1 roll. Local therapy is also carried out - in the places of the greatest lesion of the veins they make a compress (gauze soaked in a prepared infusion).

— готовят настойку. Kalanchoe leaves - prepare the tincture. To do this, take a half-liter bottle, fill it with cut leaves to half, fill up to the upper limit with vodka or 40% alcohol. Insist week indoors without direct rays of the sun, occasionally shaking. Then filter.

Rub the tincture of the legs before bedtime, especially carefully in places of defeat. It is better to do this with massaging movements from the bottom up, i.e. in the direction of the venous outflow. The duration of treatment with this remedy is 4 months (after the load, the pain in the legs should significantly decrease).

White cabbage. One sheet to beat off and properly rolled with a rolling pin. On the one hand, which will be applied to the affected area, lubricate it with vegetable oil. Secure with a bandage for a day. This is an excellent remedy for thrombophlebitis. The course of therapy is 1 month.

Celandine. The tincture of the plant to use three times a day, 10 drops diluted in 1 tablespoon of milk. Take before meals.

Which doctor to contact?

Not all people know which doctor to turn to when signs of varicose veins are detected. Previously, therapists were engaged in the treatment of this pathology, and when complications appear, surgeons. However, the development of medicine contributed to the selection of a specialty - phlebology, which “buds” from angiology (the science of blood vessels).

Phlebologists do purposefully study only the veins, not all the vessels. But this does not mean that, if necessary, they will not be able to establish the correct diagnosis, excluding other diseases. These are experts with a big outlook, but sightings dealing with veins.


Prevention of varicose veins is aimed at eliminating modifiable risk factors. Therefore recommended:

  • increase physical activity;
  • stop smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages;
  • reduce weight when it is in excess;
  • normalize nutrition by eliminating atherogenic foods from it;
  • reduce the amount of sugary foods in the diet.
2017-03-05 21:18:59
Hello. Suddenly there was a problem with the veins on the leg. In the morning I felt a sverbezh and an itch, I climbed up and saw that a lump came out on my right calf, 3 centimeters in diameter, as I understand it, venous. It was a couple of weeks ago, several times he smeared it with heparin ointment, but nowhere does it go. Life does not spoil and does not hurt, like and all right. But in recent days I noticed that in the area of ​​the elastic from the toe and ankle, a red-blue venous fine mesh began to climb out, that is, it would disappear. Today, she is not only ankle-length, but also crawled out in front of her leg, in the lower third of the leg. As I see this infection progresses. I read about venotonic drugs, can they help? Immediately I didn’t want to go to the doctor, I’m just afraid that they will register the most expensive, maybe unnecessary, for example, an operation.
2017-03-06 17:41:42
Hello, Oleg. In your position, the most important thing is to conduct an ultrasound of the veins of the lower extremities, followed by consultation with the surgeon phlebologist. It is he who determines the indications for surgery, and prescribes treatment. In your case, smearing varicose nodes with heparin ointment is the same as putting an ax on a stump and waiting for it to cut it into neat chocks. This had to be done long before the appearance of nodes. As for venotonics - that is, effective preparations that contain purified extracts of diosmin. This is Phlebodia, Detralex. Of course, they cost more, but they work. As a rule, domestic preparations are poorly cleaned, have a lot of ballast substances, and can be effective to a much lesser extent. In addition, there is the possibility of wearing a compression knitwear, which is able to cope with varicose veins at the initial and subsequent stages. To buy knee-highs and stockings of various compression classes you need in orthopedic salons, and all classes, except the 1st, need a specialist's recipe. Unfortunately, you did not indicate your age and occupation, and this is important. For example, standing and sitting work provokes the progression of chronic venous insufficiency of the vessels of the lower extremities. Smoking greatly increases the risk of thrombophlebitis, venous thrombosis and serious complications. Therefore, the first is an ultrasound scan, and a consultation with a phlebologist, and then you can write about the research results and recommendations.
2017-03-10 17:02:39
Wow! Thanks for the detailed answer. Honestly, did not even expect. Thank. While I bought Detraleks (it was cheaper than Phlebodia for a stock), I drink the third day according to the instructions. I'll see how it will be, like there is improvement. I would go to the examination, but I do not trust the clinics. Will begin to push expensive operations. If the pills do not help, you will have to go. In a month it will be visible. Inappropriately write.

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