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Nodal breast mastopathy: symptoms and treatment, surgery

Women treat their health more attentively than men, because any violations in the work of the reproductive organs often lead to the inability to conceive and feed offspring. In particular, this also applies to the mammary glands.

The representatives of the fair sex sometimes find dense neoplasms in the thickness of the breast, which make you think about the likelihood of cancer. And although this fear is not without grounds, most often it is a manifestation of the symptoms of nodular mastopathy.

What it is?

Nodular breast mastopathy

Nodular mastopathy is a benign dysplasia of the mammary gland with the presence of pronounced centers of compaction, the so-called "nodules". It develops due to hormonal imbalance and is characterized by excessive formation of connective tissue in the chest.

Pathology most often affects women 30-45 years, but seals sometimes appear at an earlier age.

Treatment of nodular breast mastopathy in a medical manner is not always possible. The risk of illness adds the risk of turning a benign tumor into a malignant one.

The ICD-10 code is No. 60, and this indicates that scientists are currently attributing the disease to urinary disorders, and not to cancer.

Content

Causes of nodular mastopathy

In the body of each woman of reproductive age hormones are produced monthly, the intensity of the synthesis of which affects the development of nodular mastopathy. In the first phase of the menstrual cycle, estrogens are produced to promote tissue growth.

At the second stage, the amount of progesterone, which slows down cell division, increases. It is against the background of hormonal imbalance that the pathological process of tissue formation occurs, which leads to the appearance of nodes. Endocrine glands are closely interrelated and have a control organ - the pituitary gland. Therefore, failures in other parts of the body also provoke the development of the disease.

So, the reasons for nodular mastopathy are as follows:

  • estrogen-progesterone vapor imbalance;
  • diseases of the pituitary and other endocrine glands;
  • uncontrolled hormonal drugs;
  • frequent use of oral contraceptives.

Usually, a woman discovers knots in her chest, not connected to the skin and clearly separated from the surrounding tissue. Pain with nodular mastopathy most often occurs a few days before menstruation and passes with the onset of bleeding. The mammary gland increases in size and compacted.

But hormonal imbalance is manifested in far from every woman. Doctors identify several factors contributing to the development of such a failure:

  • heredity;
  • neurological disorders, private stresses or permanent depressive state;
  • termination of pregnancy (abortion) or the absence of childbirth to 30 years;
  • excess weight;
  • chest injuries;
  • diseases of the ovaries, thyroid, or liver;
  • irregular sex life;
  • smoking or alcohol abuse;
  • rejection of breastfeeding baby.

Symptoms of nodular breast mastopathy

Seals can be formed in one breast or in two at once. It all depends on the strength of the hormonal failure. In general, typical for nodular mastopathy symptoms, doctors call these:

  1. Consolidation in the chest - their size varies from a couple of millimeters to several centimeters.
  2. Pain arising before menstruation or palpation seals. Some patients complain of constant aching pain.
  3. Discharge from the nipples. Usually have a light white color, but there is also a greenish tint. Spotting often indicate rupture of blood vessels in the chest (a sign does not always appear).
  4. Negative symptom Koenig - in the prone position to probe the seal is quite problematic.

Diagnostics

In the academic world, the question often arises: “Is nodular mastopathy always a cancer?” In most cases it is not, but the probability of its development is still present. To distinguish nodular mastopathy from cancer, the mammologist does not have enough visual inspection, so patients will have to undergo a comprehensive examination:

  • Mammography. X-ray examination of the chest shows the size and location of the nodes.
  • Biopsy. Perform puncture and take a tissue sample for cytological analysis. Be sure to be done to exclude breast cancer.
  • Pneumocystography. After puncture, air is introduced through a needle and x-rays are taken.
  • Ductography. The method is used for bloody nipple discharge. The bottom line is the introduction of an X-ray absorbing contrast agent.
  • Ultrasound. Allows you to determine the structure and size, location and vascularization of seals in the mammary gland.

Any examination should be carried out only 7 days after the end of menstruation. This is due to the need to eliminate the factor of cyclic increase in the mammary glands due to the action of hormones.

Forms of the disease

Nodular mastopathy In fact, the expressed nodes are the final stage of the development of fibrocystic mastopathy . Histological changes in the breast usually begin with the formation of small cysts filled with fluid. There may be many such formations, but they are not very worried about the woman.

If the level of hormones does not return to normal, then the cysts gradually thicken and the stage of diffuse nodular mastopathy begins. This form of the disease is characterized by fine-grained nodules scattered throughout the breast, which have blurred boundaries. Often a woman complains of pain during menstruation.

The next stage of the disease is the growth and compaction of the connective tissue, the formation of solid nodes with distinct boundaries. This form is characterized by discharge from the nipples and pain.

Read more about breast mastopathy .

Treatment of nodular mastopathy, surgery

Most often, the treatment of nodular mastopathy is performed by surgery. The use of drugs, doctors argue the need for the normalization of hormonal levels, but in the early stages, and drug therapy can lead to resorption of cysts. Not every patient can be helped by medicine - hormonal diseases are known for their unpredictability.

What is recommended for the treatment of nodal breast mastopathy surgery? It all depends on the stage of the disease:

  1. The puncture is indicated in the presence of cysts with liquid contents. The essence of the method consists in emptying the cavity.
  2. Sectoral resection. This method involves the removal of the affected part of the mammary gland.
  3. Radical resection. The entire mammary gland is removed.

Treatment is always selected individually. This necessarily takes into account the stage of the disease and associated pathological changes that can negatively affect the hormonal balance.

A patient with nodular mastopathy after the operation should be in the hospital for several days. In addition, he needs to take antibacterial and analgesic drugs to prevent probable blood poisoning and calm the pain.

Prevention

Women usually learn about the presence of fibrocystic disease only at the stage of hard knots, when nothing more than the complete or partial removal of the mammary gland will help. But still there are ways to both prevent the occurrence of this disease, and to identify it in a timely manner:

  • independently probe the mammary glands for changes;
  • lead a healthy lifestyle (this also applies to regular sex);
  • eat well (vitamins, minerals, proteins, etc.);
  • follow the rules of personal hygiene;
  • protect the mammary glands from injury;
  • avoid stressful situations;
  • wear comfortable bras;
  • At least 2 times a year to visit the mammologist.

Conclusion

Nodular mastopathy develops due to hormonal disruption in the body. It is preceded by the formation of cysts with liquid contents, which women do not always attach importance to.

And it turns into a compaction of nodes - benign dysplasia. This disease is not considered to be oncological, however, there is a high probability of transformation of a cyst into a cancerous tumor.

In clinical practice, there are cases of self-healing from nodular mastopathy: tumors simply dissolve and cease to hurt. Considerable role, according to reviews of patients, in this process played a change in the quality of life.

Interesting

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