• Decryption of online tests - urine, blood, general and biochemical.
  • What do bacteria and urine mean in urinalysis?
  • How to understand the analysis of the child?
  • Features of the MRI analysis
  • Special tests, ECG and ultrasound
  • Norms during pregnancy and values ​​of deviations ..
Decryption of analyzes

Head injury: treatment, first aid, and the effects of injury

Head contusion is different from all other types of head injuries in that there is no damage (tear) of the skin. Usually arises from a blow with a blunt object, in an accident or after a fall.

Trauma can be of 2 main types:

  1. Brain contusion (he paid close attention to the article).
  2. Bruise of the soft tissues of the head (the least dangerous).

The risk of developing a particular type of head injury depends on the intensity of the traumatic factor. The stronger it is, the deeper layers are affected.

In this case, brain contusion is often combined with hemorrhage both in the brain tissue and under its arachnoid membrane, which aggravates the human condition. Often, these patients are diagnosed and fractures of the skull bones.

Content

Main symptoms of head injury

Symptoms of head injury fit into 3 main syndromes:

  1. Cerebral , associated with nonspecific reaction of the brain to injury.
  2. Local , depending on the immediate location of the brain damage (the injuries affecting the medulla are most dangerous, as they contain the centers for the regulation of respiration and cardiac activity).
  3. Meningeal due to irritation of the meninges.

Symptoms and treatment of head injury

Cerebral symptoms occur with bruise of any severity. Their presence and connection with the traumatic factor allow the doctor to set a preliminary diagnosis.

These symptoms include:

  • pain in the head;
  • nausea causing vomiting;
  • dizziness;
  • reduced attention;
  • weakening of the memory until its loss for some events.

The appearance of meningeal symptoms indicates severe brain damage. Prognostically, this syndrome is not very favorable.

Indicate it:

  • Strong headache;
  • muscle tension in the neck and back;
  • repeated vomiting, after which there is no relief, etc.

Local (focal) symptoms allow for topical diagnosis, i.e. suggest the proportion of the brain is a pathological focus.

Thus, with bruising of the neck, visual functions suffer. This is due to the fact that in the occipital lobe the peripheral nerve path from the eyeball ends and switching to the central one takes place.

Therefore, a person may experience temporary blindness, double vision and other ophthalmic signs.

They should be differentiated from similar symptoms, but associated with an immediate injury of the eye, which leads to retinal detachment. Patients with a bruise to the neck of the head need additional consultation of the oculist.

Focal symptoms with bruising of the frontal lobes also have a characteristic picture:

  • unconsciousness is replaced by mental and motor excitement;
  • confused consciousness;
  • aggression;
  • euphoric and incorrect assessment of their condition;
  • reduced criticism, etc.

Severe head injury

Severe head injury Head injuries are conditionally classified into 3 degrees, determining the severity of a person’s condition and its further prognosis.

Light damage is characterized by the following criteria:

  • Loss of consciousness that lasts no more than a few minutes;
  • Fast recovery without auxiliary methods;
  • Cerebral symptoms prevail over focal;
  • Involuntary movements made by the eyeballs;
  • Sometimes, sensitivity and motor activity in the opposite side of the body can be reduced relative to the side of brain damage (this symptom is more characteristic of moderate contusion, but can also occur in light);
  • Regression of clinical symptoms and morphological changes takes 2-3 weeks. Residual changes are practically not observed.

Moderate contusion of the brain is accompanied by a pronounced violation of the general condition.

Its signs are:

  • Longer loss of consciousness - up to 2-4 hours;
  • Consciousness is stunned for several hours, up to a maximum of 24 hours;
  • Moderate cerebral symptoms;
  • There are manifestations of meningeal syndrome;
  • Focal symptoms - loss of speech, perverted sensitivity, inability to move the limbs of the right or left side normally, increased breathing, and others.

Severe head contusion (severe) is a serious threat to life.

It may be accompanied by a coma that persists for several days. These patients have disorders in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems that require medical and hardware correction. Otherwise death occurs.

Other signs of severe injury are:

  • Memory loss for events that preceded the injury;
  • Visual impairment;
  • Motive anxiety;
  • Increased mental irritability, etc.

Soft tissue injury to the head

Soft tissue injury to the head Bruise of the soft tissues of the head, which is not accompanied by damage to the brain, does not pose a serious danger to humans.

This is a fairly common condition that can be obtained from a blow with a blunt object on the head, while the integrity of the skin is not broken. Most often found in athletes, but may be in everyday life.

A bump on the head with such a bruise is the leading symptom. It appears in the place where the blow was struck. When her feeling marked pain. There may be minor abrasions on the skin, but as such there is no epithelial defect.

Cones are the result of 2 interconnected processes:

  • Hemorrhages in the tissue due to mechanical rupture of blood vessels;
  • Puffiness due to the release of plasma into the surrounding tissues.

Usually, no specific treatment is required for a head injury. Immediately after getting injured, it is recommended to apply ice to the hurt place. This will lead to spasm of blood vessels and reduce hemorrhage.

Subsequently, to accelerate resorption, warming physiotherapy procedures are recommended (UHF, electrophoresis). If the hematoma of the head after a bruise is massive, then surgical treatment may be required, consisting of two stages:

  1. Opening a hematoma (an incision is made on the skin under anesthesia);
  2. Processing cavity hemorrhage and drainage (the introduction of special tubes, which will be the outflow of the contents and, if necessary, the introduction of antiseptics).

In some cases, soft tissue hematomas may suppuce (and this does not depend on their size). The risk of developing this complication in patients with diabetes is increased.

When festering hemorrhage produce its autopsy and prescribe antibiotic therapy. This approach will prevent the transfer of purulent inflammation of the soft tissues to the brain.

First aid at home and when to go to the hospital

First aid for head injuries - its quality and timeliness - determine the effectiveness of further treatment. Therefore, you need to know how to render it correctly.

Priority activities are:

  • Turning the head of the affected person to the side, to prevent possible vomit ingress into the respiratory tract;
  • Removal of all removable dentures and removal of foreign bodies from the mouth;
  • If consciousness is preserved, then the person must lie - standing or sitting is forbidden;
  • Fixation of the cervical spine by any means that is at hand.

In parallel with the provision of first aid, it is necessary to call an ambulance brigade.

It should be remembered that when you receive any head injury, you should always consult a doctor, because In some patients, bruises can occur with minimal symptoms at the beginning, but then lead to serious consequences.

Diagnosis and treatment

Diagnosis and treatment of head injuries Diagnosis of patients with suspected head injury is carried out comprehensively:

  • X-ray (to exclude fractures and identify local foci in the brain);
  • Spinal puncture (determined by the increased number of red blood cells);
  • Computed tomography (it can be used to identify not only the injury site, but also the area of ​​the therapeutic reserve - edema and ischemia).

To determine the degree of impairment of consciousness helps scale Glasgow. Depending on the amount of points planned therapeutic measures and further prediction.

The principles of treatment for brain contusion are determined by the nature and stage of pathological changes. Depending on this, primary and secondary damage to the nervous tissue is isolated.

Primary - these are those that are directly due to the impact of the traumatic factor. These damages are represented by various conditions:

  • Violation of the structure of nerve cells and glia (surrounded by nervous tissue);
  • Breaks in connections between nerve cells;
  • Vascular thrombosis;
  • Rupture of the vessel wall;
  • Increased permeability of cell membranes and energy hunger (the number of ATP molecules decreases), accompanied by cell death.

There is a hypersensitivity zone around the immediate pathological focus. These are living nerve cells, but easily vulnerable when exposed to any pathological factor (lack of glucose or oxygen).

It is this zone that represents the therapeutic reserve, i.e. with proper treatment, these cells will replace the dead, and there will be no loss of the function for which the injured focus was responsible.

Secondary injuries develop as a result of the inflammatory process, always present in case of injury. Depending on the intensity of inflammation, the cells of the nervous tissue can be either restored or damaged. Treatment should be aimed at creating conditions for recovery.

Head injury treatment can be conservative and surgical. The latter type of care is required in 10-15% of cases of patients diagnosed with brain contusion.

Indications for surgical treatment are:

  • Hematoma, the inner diameter of which exceeds 4 cm;
  • Significant displacement (more than 5 mm) of brain structures, with the exception of the hemispheres;
  • Severe intracranial hypertension, which cannot be eliminated by pharmacological methods.

Conservative treatment includes:

  • Diuretic drugs to reduce the severity of brain edema;
  • Oxygen therapy (if necessary, tracheal intubation is performed);
  • Infusion therapy and maintaining blood pressure at an adequate level;
  • Anticonvulsants;
  • Antihypoxants reduce the severity of ischemic changes, increase the resistance of nervous tissue to oxygen starvation and contribute to its recovery.

Bruise effects

The consequences of a head injury are varied and depend on the severity of this condition. With a mild degree, the symptoms usually regress quickly, leaving no trace. For severe bruises, some complications are likely:

  • Apallic syndrome - a person is conscious, but indifferent to his surroundings, unable to fix objects and people, reacts only to painful stimuli (waking coma);
  • Paresis - loss of the ability to move muscles;
  • Brain cysts;
  • Abscess - the formation of a purulent cavity in the brain;
  • Persistent intracranial hypertension;
  • Chronic headache - a condition when a headache after a bruise for 6 months or more;
  • Meningitis is an inflammatory lesion of the meninges;
  • Secondary epilepsy.

In severe injury there is a high risk of death or disability.

The success of treatment will depend on the timeliness of seeking help and the massiveness of the lesion.

Head injury according to ICD 10

Main section: HEAD INJURIES (S00-S09)

According to ICD 10, head bruise has different codes. This emphasizes the diversity of the clinical forms of this condition.

They may also be:

  • Traumatic brain edema;
  • Diffuse injury;
  • Focal trauma;
  • Hemorrhage under the dura mater;
  • Hemorrhage under the arachnoid membrane, etc.

FAQ

  • Can dizzy after head bruises?

Depending on the severity of the injury and its massiveness, dizziness may persist for several months. If it is very intense, the doctor may prescribe specific drugs that will help eliminate this unpleasant symptom.

Over time, with a slight injury, dizziness goes away on its own.

  • What to do when bruised neck?

In this case, immediately after injury, you must:

  1. apply ice or a towel moistened with cold water to a hurt place;
  2. take a horizontal position and turn your head to the side;
  3. call an ambulance or go to the hospital by yourself (when transporting by car, it is recommended to lower the seat as much as possible).
Interesting

The information is provided for information and reference purposes, a professional doctor should diagnose and prescribe treatment. Do not self-medicate. | Contact | Advertise | © 2018 Medic-Attention.com - Health On-Line
Copying materials is prohibited. Editorial site - info @ medic-attention.com