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How does the color of the eyes of a newborn child

The birth of a child is a little miracle. Even when the baby grows in the womb of the mother, the future parents, their immediate relatives and friends are actively trying to predict what color the baby will have. Sometimes it happens that a child is born with light gray or blue eyes, although his mom and dad are brown-eyed. But closer to the year the baby's eyes become dark. What is the reason for this phenomenon and how to explain the presence of different eye colors in newborn children?

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What color are the eyes of newborns?

Eyes are the mirror of the soul. Any eye color is beautiful and has its own characteristics. In young children, the formation of the final eye color may occur during the first three years of life. But if you look at the parents and next of kin of the baby, you can guess what color the eyes of an already grown up child will be.

How does the formation of the color of the iris

In the process of intrauterine development of the fetus, at the eleventh week the iris of the eye begins to form. It is she who determines what color your baby will have. The process of inheriting the color of the iris is very complicated: several genes are responsible for it at once. It used to be that mom and dad with dark eyes had absolutely no chance to give birth to a light-eyed baby, but recent studies have shown that this is not so.

Eye color inheritance table

Using this table, you can assume the color of the eyes of the unborn child

The color and shade of the iris depends immediately on two factors:

  • density of the cells of the iris;
  • the amount of melanin in the child's body.

Melanin is a special pigment that skin cells produce. It is he who is responsible for the saturation and intensity of the color of our skin, hair and eyes.

Accumulating in large numbers in the iris of the eye, melanin causes the formation of black, dark brown or hazel flowers. If it is not enough, children are born with blue, gray and green eyes. People with a complete lack of melanin in the body are called albinos.

There is an erroneous opinion that all small children are born blue-eyed. In fact, this is not always the case. The baby is born with a certain density of cells of the iris and the amount of melanin given by nature in it, therefore the eyes appear light. In the process of maturation, growth and development of the child's body, this pigment accumulates in the iris, due to which a different eye color is formed. Thus, the phenomenon of the transformation of the blue eyes of a baby into dark and even black can be easily explained. Do not forget that many children are born immediately with brown eyes.

Yellow and green eyes

Green and yellow eyes are a consequence of a small amount of melanin in the iris. The shade of the eyes is also determined by the presence of lipofuscin pigment in the first layer of the iris. The bigger it is, the brighter the eyes. Green eyes have slight patches of this substance, which causes the variability of their shades.

Baby with green eyes

The green color of the eyes of a child is formed closer to the second year of life.

Yellow eyes, contrary to popular rumors, are not an anomaly. Very often, yellow-eyed babies appear in brown-eyed parents. In most cases, this color of the eyes darkens to an older age, but some children remain with yellow eyes for life.

Yellow eyes

Yellow eye color in adults is a rarity all over the world.

There are some interesting facts about green and yellow eyes. For example, women are more likely to have a green iris than men. During the Middle Ages, green-eyed women were considered witches and burned at the stake according to ancient superstitions — perhaps this explains so few people with green eyes at the present time. Yellow eyes - a rarity: they are found in less than two percent of the world's population. They are also called "the eyes of the tiger."

Red eyes

Red eyes in a child are a sign of a severe genetic disease called albinism. Albinos have practically no pigment melanin: this is due to their snow-white skin, hair and red or colorless eyes.

Child albino

Albinos have red eyes

The reddish tinge of the iris is due to the fact that blood vessels shine through it in the light. Albinism is a rather serious pathology, and a lot of effort is needed to raise such a child. You will need to use special glasses and protective creams, as well as regularly show the younger baby to the pediatrician.

Melanin, which is so lacking in albinos, provides protection from sunlight. That is why the white skin of these people instantly burns in the sun. The risk of developing malignant neoplasms in these children is much higher than in others.

It is noteworthy that this pathology is not a mutation, but a consequence of a genetic lottery: the distant ancestors of both parents of a person born with red eyes once suffered from a lack of melanin. Albinism is a recessive trait and can occur only if there is a meeting of two identical genes.

Albinism is often combined with other congenital malformations: cleft lip, bilateral deafness and blindness. Albinos often suffer from nystagmus - pathological movements of the eyeball, which occur without their intention.

Blue and blue eyes

Blue eyes in newborns are due to the low density of cells in the outer layer of the iris, as well as due to the low content of melanin in it. Low-frequency light rays completely disappear in the back layer of the iris, and high-frequency rays are reflected from the front, as if from a mirror. The smaller the cells in the outer layer, the brighter and more saturated the eye color will be.

About ninety-five percent of the population of Estonia and Germany before the Second World War had blue eyes. Blue eyes are more sensitive to light. When a blue-eyed person is happy or scared, his eyes can change color.

Blue eyed baby

Blue eyes can change their shade depending on the light.

Blue eyes are the case if the cells in the outer layer of the iris are more densely than with blue, and also have a grayish tint. Most often, blue and blue eyes can be found in Caucasians. But there are exceptions.

People with blue eyes are less susceptible to tearing onions when cleaning them. Most blue-eyed people live in the northern parts of the world. Blue eyes - a mutation that originated over ten thousand years ago: all blue-eyed people are very distant relatives of each other.

Gray and dark gray eyes

The mechanism of formation of dark gray and gray eyes does not differ from blue and blue. The amount of melanin and the density of the cells of the iris are slightly larger than those of blue eyes. It is believed that a child who was born with gray eyes may later receive both a lighter and a darker shade. We can say that gray eyes are a transition point between these two shades.

Gray eyed baby

Gray eyes can often be found in babies.

Black and brown eyes

Holders of black and brown eyes can boast the greatest amount of melanin in their irises. This eye color is most common in the world. Black or "agate" eyes are widely distributed among the peoples of Asia, the Caucasus and Latin America. It is believed that initially all people on earth had the same amount of melanin in the iris and were brown-eyed. Fully black eyes, in which it is impossible to distinguish the pupil, are found in less than one percent of the population.

Brown-eyed baby

Brown-eyed people most in the world

Very often, children with brown eyes have dark hair, eyebrows and eyelashes, as well as a dark complexion. Dark-eyed blondes are currently a rarity.

There is a laser operation, with the help of which it is possible to remove part of the pigment and lighten the eyes: the Japanese widely use this method. In ancient times, it was believed that people with brown eyes were well seen in the dark, and this allowed them to hunt at night.

Multi-colored eyes

Multi-colored eyes are a very rare phenomenon, a genetic mutation called heterochromia. This is due to a change in the genetic structure that encodes the melanin pigment: thanks to this, the iris of one eye receives slightly more melanin, and the other - slightly less. Such a mutation has no effect on vision, so heterochromia is an absolutely safe phenomenon.

There are several types of multi-colored eyes:

  • total heterochromia: both eyes are evenly colored in different colors;
    Total heterochromia

    Complete (total) heterochromia is very rare

  • partial, or sector: in one of the eyes there is a bright impregnation of a different color;
    Partial heterochromia

    Many people have multi-colored blotches in their eyes.

  • circular heterochromia: several rings of different colors around the pupil.
    Circular heterochromia

    Circular heterochromia occurs in five percent of the population.

Multi-colored eyes are not a sign of any disease, but rather a rather interesting and unusual phenomenon that makes the child unique and unique in its own way. Many Hollywood stars also had a similar "defect", which was turned into a zest.

Famous people with heterochromia:

  • David Bowie;
  • Kate Bosworth;
  • Mila Kunis;
  • Jane Seymour;
  • Alice Eve.

How to determine the color of the eyes of the baby

As you know, the color of the baby's eyes may have different shades. Depending on the conditions, mood, weather and even the time of day, it may undergo some changes. Various diseases, stresses and injuries can permanently change the color of the child's iris, due to the complex processes of healing and restoration of the structure of the eyeball.

Boy with blue eyes

When blue-eyed kids cry, their eyes turn aquamarine.

The following factors may cause a change in eye color:

  • long crying;
  • natural or artificial lighting;
  • weather;
  • the color of the clothes that the baby wears;
  • infectious diseases of the eyeball and eyelids;
  • child nutrition;
  • lack of sleep;
  • eyeball injuries.

How can you correctly determine the color of the eyes of a child? Wait until your baby is in a good mood: full, satisfied and cheerful. Bring the baby closer to the source of light and carefully look at his eyes. Most often it is very difficult to distinguish between blue and green shades. Most of all, the difference between them is noticeable with daylight lighting.

If you want to at least roughly determine the color of the eyes of an unborn baby, you should turn to genetics. He will make for you a pedigree taking into account the color of the iris of your closest relatives. At the reception, you must come with a spouse and with photos of the grandparents of the baby.

Video: inheritance of the color of the eyes of the child, depending on the color of the eyes of his relatives

When eye color changes in newborns

Usually, the final shade of the iris is formed by the third year of a child's life. Sometimes there may be exceptions, when the color of the eyes remains forever the same as at birth, or changes again in the puberty period. According to some studies, people who were originally born with dark eyes are much less likely to change the color of the iris throughout their lives. In newborns with light and rare eye shades, the formation of the final color occurs much later.

Table: changing the color of the eyes of a newborn child depending on his age

What is the color of the eyes the child was born The approximate age of the final formation of the shade of the iris
The black Does not change since birth
Brown From two months to six months
Blue From six months to two years
Blue From six months to one and a half years
Green From year to four years
Yellow From two months to five years
Gray From birth to year
Dark grey From birth to one and a half years
Red Does not change since birth

When the color of the whites of the eyes indicates pathology

The white of the eye, otherwise called the sclera, is a unique indicator of the state of the internal organs of a person. Normally, the sclera has a completely white color, and resembles boiled chicken protein, from which its second name originated. And also it has on its surface the smallest capillaries that carry arterial and venous blood. A change in the color of the eyeball directly indicates the pathology present in the body.

Red squirrel eyes

If your child has red eyes, this may indicate at once about several types of pathological processes that take place in his body. However, you should not be too afraid and panic: in most cases, the redness passes within a few days with the proper use of eye drops.

Redness of the eyes of the boy

Red eyes indicate corneal irritation.

Causes of white eye redness:

  • SARS and colds;
  • conjunctivitis;
  • pollution;
  • barley formation;
  • protein damage: scratch or bump;
  • inflammation of the ciliary sacs.

If the baby is restless, constantly trying to touch the eye, his temperature has risen, you should immediately consult a doctor. If the treatment of this disease does not require special means, you will need to buy special children's drops and bury the crumbs of their eyes three times a day. If there are more serious pathologies associated with infection of the protein, the child will be given antibiotic and eye ointment.

Yellow whites of the eyes

When a newborn baby has a yellow color of the sclera, skin and mucous membranes, you should talk about jaundice. This type of pathology is very common in premature babies, as well as in babies whose mother had Rh-conflict.

Newborn jaundice

The yellow color of the skin and whites of the baby’s eyes is associated with an excess of bilirubin

Rhesus conflict - a situation arising from the incompatibility of Rhesus women and men, as a result of which the Rh-negative mother bears a Rh-positive child.

The yellowness of the baby is due to the presence in his blood of a large amount of a special enzyme called bilirubin. The more it is in the body, the more intense the coloring. Bilirubin appears due to the increased destruction of blood cells in the infant's liver. This is due to the fact that when the baby was in the mother's body, he had a completely different hemoglobin (a protein that carries oxygen to the cells of the body). At birth, infant hemoglobin is replaced by an adult, which is associated with impaired adaptation mechanisms, destruction of blood cells and the formation of jaundice. Usually this condition goes away within a few days without treatment.

If a woman with Rh-conflict has a rather difficult pregnancy and there are significant complications and pathologies, there is a risk of developing a more severe form of jaundice. Usually, after the birth of these children, they are taken to intensive care, where they take all the necessary measures to restore balance in the body. The duration of jaundice treatment in newborns ranges from two to six months.

Blue squirrel eyes

Children born with blue or bluish whites of the eyes are carriers of a severe genetic disease called Lobstein Van der Heve syndrome. This is a rather complex and multifactorial disease affecting the connective tissue, visual apparatus, organs of hearing and bone system. Such a baby will stay in the hospital for a long time, but he will not be able to completely get rid of the pathology.

Blue sclera

Blue Sclera Syndrome - Severe Genetic Pathology

This genetic abnormality is dominant: a sick child will be born to a person who has this disease. Fortunately, the syndrome is quite rare: one case per sixty or eighty thousand babies per year.

The main clinical manifestations of the syndrome:

  • bilateral hearing loss associated with the underdevelopment of the internal auditory canal and the auditory ossicles;
  • frequent bone fractures and ligament breaks: the connective tissue sheath is not able to withstand pressure, and even a minor blow can lead to severe injury;
  • the blue color of the eyeballs is due to the fact that the thin sclera, passing rays of light through itself, reflects the pigment of the iris;
  • significant visual impairment is directly dependent on the sclera pathologies.

Unfortunately, since the disease is a violation of the genetic structure, it is not possible to completely cure it. Usually, doctors prescribe symptomatic treatment, which is aimed at reducing the intensity of the main manifestations. And also on reaching the child of a certain age, it is possible to conduct operations that will help restore vision and hearing. Parents of such a baby should be extremely careful not to accidentally provoke fractures or other injuries.

Thanks to the achievements of modern medicine and genetics, it is possible to determine the color of your baby’s eyes before birth. Of course, these results will only be approximate. Inheriting and shaping the color of the iris is a rather complicated and interesting process. However, the majority of parents do not care at all what color their newborn's eyes will be, so long as the child grows and develops without any diseases or pathologies. If you notice that the color of the baby's eyeball is different from the norm, you should immediately contact your pediatrician and endocrinologist.

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