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Explanation of analyzes

Cystitis in women: symptoms and treatment, drugs, cystitis

Among the many diseases of a urological nature, cystitis in women is the most common pathology. Etymology is caused by the damage of the upper mucous layer of the inner walls of the bladder by an inflammatory process. Sometimes the submucosal and muscular layer is involved in the lesion, causing changes in the tissue structure of the organ and impairing its functions.

Much more often, women are subject to cystitis (up to 80% of all patients). This is due to the peculiarity of the female anatomical structure of the urethral canal. It is wider and shorter than the male urethra, which does not cause difficulties in advancing in infectious agents.

The clinical picture of the disease can manifest itself in an acute or chronic course, with various symptoms and signs.


Causes of Cystitis

Cystitis in women

Cystitis itself refers to the classification of infectious diseases. Its genesis is associated with bacterial carriers: intestinal bacillus bacteria (70%), globular staphylococci and other bacteria. The main role in the occurrence of cystitis in women is the spread of infection from possible foci of lesions in the body:

  • In the underlying organs (different forms of vulvovaginitis);
  • A descending way with a flow of urine from the foci of inflammation in the kidneys and the upper parts of the ureter;
  • Hematogenous pathway of the pathogen (with blood flow).

Often, acute cystitis in women develops as a result of a structural underdevelopment of the urinary system or cancerous tumors that interfere with the normal process of urine output, contribute to its acute retention in the urinary system and the development of infection.

Influences on the development of pathology are various factors that contribute to reducing the overall resistance (resistance) of immunity:

  • Acute and chronic infectious diseases in the anamnesis (previously transferred) - inflammation of the appendages, fallopian tubes or ovaries, acute or purulent pyelonephritis, inflammation of the urethra;
  • Subcooling and prolonged sedentary work;
  • Conditions and diseases that reduce protection of immunity (pregnancy and diabetes);
  • Chronic foci of infection - angina, rhinitis or caries;
  • Immunosuppressive drugs, stress and instability of the nervous system;
  • Injuries to the back;
  • Early sexual relations;
  • Neglect of hygiene;
  • The age factor.

Forms of cystitis and features of manifestation

Cystitis in women can manifest itself in various forms, caused by a morphological change in the cavity wall of the bladder.

  • Catarrhal pathology is characterized by hyperemia and swelling of the mucous layer of the organ membrane provoked by the action of the inflammatory process.
  • With hemorrhagic form on the mucous cover, bleeding lesions appear. There is an increase in erythrocytes and macrohematuria (dark or red urine).
  • With necrotic (ulcerative) form, deep grooves in the form of furrows are noted, penetrating into the muscle tissue of the membrane.
  • The follicular form of the disease is characterized by tuberosity of the mucous layer, caused by the formation of follicular tubercles under the mucous coating, which do not change the cavity surface itself.
  • Fibrous appearance - the surface of the mucous layer is covered with a purulent or fibrin film of whitish or crimson color. The walls of the bladder become inflamed, the upper membrane of the cavity is compacted and wrinkled.
  • Bullous cystitis is manifested by prolonged excessive reddening and a significant accumulation of infiltration (swelling) of the upper layer of the inner membrane of the bladder.
  • Polypoznoe manifestation is characterized by a long inflammatory process, which provokes the development of polyps on the mucous layer and in the cervical area of ​​the organ.
  • In cystic pathology, under the layer of the mucous coating of the bladder, single or group cystic neoplasms are formed, filled with lymphatic tissue and surrounded by a modified epithelium.
  • The encrusting appearance of the pathology is characterized by a prolonged course. A characteristic symptom is the formation of phosphate deposits (incrustations) on the walls of the cavity of the bladder, which subsequently promote the formation of stones. The transformation of carbamide (urea) into alkali occurs through the fault of bacterial microorganisms, capable of metabolism.

Signs and symptoms of cystitis in women

symptoms of cystitis in women

Vivid symptoms of cystitis and marked signs of illness in women are noted in acute course, accompanied by: general intoxication (malaise, weakness, chills, vomiting or nausea, slight increase in temperature).

When the disease, after remission (apparent recovery) periodically recurs (more than 2 times a year), it goes to the stage of chronic course. Symptoms of chronic cystitis in women can be manifested, less pronounced.

The processes of inflammation alternate with the stage of remission and acute clinical course. Cystitis in the stage of remission does not show external signs and symptoms. When the disease worsens, the symptoms manifest themselves in a number of characteristic symptoms:

  1. Increased number of urges to urinate (every 20 minutes);
  2. Soreness, burning and cutting along the urethral throat at the time of urine output;
  3. Tenderness in the suprapubic zone (may be an independent symptom or accompany the yield of urine);
  4. Unpleasant smell and turbidity of urine, the formation of flakes, purulent, or blood clots in it;
  5. Feeling of residual urine in the urine collection;
  6. Soreness in the lumbar and renal region;
  7. Possible development of enuresis (incontinence).

Chronic cystitis in women has various signs of clinical course of the disease.

  • Latent flow is stable, with rare or frequent exacerbation processes. The symptomatology is "erased", or completely absent.
  • The persistent appearance is manifested as a characteristic symptom of chronic pathology. In this case, the functions of the urinal are not violated. There are alternations of remission and exacerbation, signs of hemorrhage within the body.
  • Interstitial flow is characterized by stable painful signs of manifestation with marked symptoms. The spread of inflammation into the tissues, the disruption of the reservoir function (enuresis) is noted. This is the most severe type of disease course.

With timely treatment with the disease can be coped quickly, otherwise - do not avoid complications.

Probability of complications

Absence of treatment, or incorrectly selected therapy, leads to relapse and complication of the disease:

  1. Transition of inflammatory processes in the muscular structure of the bladder wall - the development of the interstitial type of pathology.
  2. The upward spread of infection, affecting the overlying organs of the urinary system, which contributes to the formation of associated background pathologies - damage to the renal pelvis, purulent inflammation of the kidneys, etc.
  3. Intraperitoneal rupture of the bladder (not excluded) followed by the formation of peritonitis.

Cystitis - which doctor should a woman address?

Chronic cystitis in women With the manifestation of signs of the disease, to confirm the diagnosis, you need to contact a urologist. It is this doctor that solves the problems of a urological nature.

To eliminate the consequences of STDs, a consultation with a gynecologist is needed. You may need a smear on the flora of the vagina, which will help to identify the disease and determine its stage of development.

Diagnosis - detection of the disease

To identify the disease using a variety of diagnostic tests, from rapid diagnosis to conventional methods of examination, including:

  • examination of blood and urine parameters;
  • detection of hidden inflammatory processes in the urinary system (by the method of Nechiporenko);
  • diagnosis of infectious diseases by PCR analysis ;
  • tank-sowing on the flora - detection of UPM (bacteria);
  • detection of background diseases - ultrasound of the genitourinary system;
  • analysis of vaginal dysbiosis;
  • biopsy;
  • endoscopic examination of the internal cavity of the bladder (cystoscopy)

Than to treat a cystitis at women? - drugs and medications

Than to treat a cystitis at women

From a properly written protocol of treatment depends on how quickly you can cure cystitis in women. Therapeutic tactics include various therapeutic techniques.

Drug therapy - involves the appointment of appropriate antibiotics, with chronic cystitis in women who suppress concomitant infections - a class of cephalosporins and combinations of protected penicillins.

  • They are appointed immediately, without waiting for the identification of the pathogen, followed by correction of drugs.

The main treatment is tableting. In the treatment of cystitis in women, pills are prescribed to relieve symptoms. These include anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating agents, antispasmodics and uroseptics based on nitrofurans and sulfonamides.

As an additional treatment, spasmolytics and natural uroseptics (herbs, collections, etc.) can be prescribed.

Specific drugs are appointed exclusively individually. Since many of them have a number of contraindications and limitations in admission. The treatment will be complete if the sparing regimen and balanced diet are observed, since the diet plays an important role.

  • it is necessary to use more liquid (water without gas, juices);
  • more foods with a vitamin C content;
  • to exclude from the ration of smoked meat, spices, fried foods, dishes saturated with potassium (dishes from cottage cheese, cheese and milk);
  • Inadmissible alcohol.

Measures for the prevention of cystitis

To prevent recurrence of the disease should strictly adhere to the recommendations of the attending physician. Fundamental rules:

  • avoid hypothermia and prolonged sitting;
  • consume up to 1.5 liters. liquid per day;
  • do not tolerate stagnation of urine (do not tolerate urge);
  • at intimacy use methods of protection;
  • Do not neglect personal hygiene (especially during the menstrual cycle).

Observance of such not tricky rules, will protect from repeated treatment of illness.

Miroslava Tkacheva
2017-09-01 05:19:33
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