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Ovarian cystadenoma is a benign tumor that should not be ignored

The ovaries are an important element of the female reproductive system. This is a paired organ that represents the sex glands in which the eggs mature. Any pathology can lead to a failure of reproductive function, the development of inflammatory processes. One of the most common diseases of the ovaries is cystadenoma - a tumor that has a benign character.

Content

What is ovarian cystadenoma

Ovarian cystadenoma is the most common type of cyst of the female reproductive system (more than 60% of all clinical cases). The tumor is a blister with a clear liquid. Despite the benign nature, the neoplasm requires timely treatment.

There is always a risk of transformation of a cystadenoma into a malignant tumor - adenocarcinoma or cystadenocarcinoma.

Ovarian cystadenoma

Ovarian cystadenoma is a benign tumor

Serous, mucinous, coarser papillary, papillary (papillary), borderline, smooth-wall cystadenoma

Depending on the shape and content of the cystadenoma tumor, there are serous (simple) and mucinous tumors. In the first case, we are talking about a cyst with dense epithelial tissue, inside of which there is a clear liquid.

In turn, serous cystadenomas are divided into:

  1. Cilioepithelial. Cyst tissue is homogeneous. The tumor is also called smooth-wall.
  2. Papillary. The disease is characterized by the presence of parietal growths. The cyst acquires heterogeneity, which greatly complicates the diagnosis. Due to the large number of papillae, the pathology has received another name - the papillary cystadenoma.
  3. Coarse papillae. On the surface of the cyst, the nipples of a more dense consistency are formed. There is a high risk of converting such a neoplasm into a malignant tumor.
  4. Border. In pathology, papillae grows abundantly. This type of cystadenoma is considered the most dangerous. The neoplasm is rapidly increasing in size, the risk of transformation into a malignant tumor increases.

The mucinous cystadenoma has a rather dense, viscous secretion. Often there is sediment and mist.

Mucinous cysts can reach huge sizes. In some cases, the weight of the neoplasm reaches 15 kg.

Depending on the location of the tumor, cystodenome is isolated:

  • left side;
  • right side.

With age, the likelihood of malignant degeneration of cysts increases significantly. In women over 40, a borderline or mucinous cystadenoma in just a few years can turn into a cystadenocarcinoma (serous, mucinous or endometrioid). Therefore, it is absolutely impossible to delay the treatment of the disease.

Causes and factors of the development of the pathological process: menopause, abortion and others

Experts cannot name the exact reasons for the development of cystadenoma today. There is an opinion that initially a benign tumor is formed from functional cysts (corpus luteum cyst, follicular cyst). These tumors appear in women after ovulation as a result of the action of pituitary hormones. Over time, they dissolve on their own. However, in case of an impaired hormonal background, functional cysts do not disappear - cystadenoma is born.

Human figure

Every abortion increases the likelihood of ovarian cystadenoma

The most susceptible to the development of cystadenomas women after 30 years. However, young girls may face the problem due to hormonal disorders. In children under 15 years of age, pathology does not occur.

During menopause, the risk of cystadenoma increases. This significantly increases the likelihood of malignant degeneration of the tumor due to a weakened immune system.

In addition to functional cysts, cystadenomas can cause various inflammatory processes, which often develop after surgical intervention in the pelvic area. Other adverse factors include:

  • difficult childbirth;
  • abortions;
  • sexual abstinence;
  • promiscuity;

Increases the risk of cystadenoma in women who regularly suffer weight, adhere to low-calorie diets.

Symptoms and signs depending on the size and location of the tumor

The signs of the disease are directly dependent on the size of the tumor, its localization. Cystadenoma may not be felt for a long time. As cysts grow, the following unpleasant symptoms appear:

  • aching pain in the abdomen;
  • lumbar pain;
  • feeling of a foreign object in the peritoneum;
  • violation of the menstrual cycle;
  • urinary tract dysfunction (marked pressure on the bladder).
I have a stomachache

Aching pain in the abdomen - one of the signs of ovarian cystadenoma

Unpleasant sensations are localized on the side where the tumor is located. With the growth of tumors may increase the size of the abdomen of a woman. This symptom speaks of the advanced stage of the pathological process.

Diagnostics

To determine which type of cyst had to face, the following methods help the doctor:

  1. Gynecological examination. The specialist evaluates the size of the tumor, the degree of its mobility, consistency.
  2. Ultrasound procedure. It helps to accurately determine the location and size of the tumor. In addition, it is possible to identify the degree of growth of the surface epithelium. Diagnostics, as a rule, plan on the seventh day of the menstrual cycle.
  3. CT scan. Gives the opportunity to more in-depth study of the structure of the tumor.
  4. Pregnancy test. Excludes ectopic fetal development.
    Pregnancy test

    Pregnancy test eliminates ectopic fetal development

  5. General blood analysis. Allows you to eliminate the development of the inflammatory process.
A specialist needs to differentiate various types of cystadena, exclude the development of malignant tumors. Additionally, a blood test for tumor markers can be prescribed.

How to treat a disease

Getting rid of cystadenoma can only be done surgically. The tumor does not dissolve by itself.

Surgical intervention

Specialist specialist chooses depending on the type and size of the tumor. In addition, the following factors are taken into account:

  • age of the patient;
  • the need to preserve the childbearing function;
  • risk of developing malignant neoplasms;
  • presence of concomitant chronic pathologies.

Classic way

If there is a serious risk of developing cancer complications or a cyst has reached a large size, it is necessary to completely remove the ovary. Such a measure entails unpleasant consequences associated with a decrease in the production of female sex hormones, deterioration of reproductive function.

Laparoscopy

A more benign method of surgical intervention is laparoscopy, which allows you to maintain healthy ovarian tissue. Manipulations are carried out through several punctures in the abdominal wall. The image of the area of ​​operation is displayed on the monitor, so that a specialist can control the whole process.

Laparoscopy as a method of cystadenoma removal has several advantages. These include:

  • preservation of the reproductive function of women;
  • preservation of the ovary;
  • maintaining normal levels of sex hormones;
  • rapid rehabilitation after surgery;
  • minimal risk of complications;
  • exclusion of postoperative scars and adhesions.

Serous cystadenoma can develop during pregnancy. If the tumor does not exceed 3 cm in diameter, no action is taken until the child is born. The large size of the tumor is the indication for surgical intervention.

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Despite the high effectiveness of such an intervention, laparoscopy is contraindicated in some women. The operation is not performed if:

  • acute infectious processes in the body (ARVI, flu, pyelonephritis, etc.) occur;
  • there are adhesions in the abdominal cavity;
  • there are malignant neoplasms of the urogenital system;
  • woman obese 3-4 degrees.

In the presence of at least one of the above contraindications cystadenoma is removed in the classical way.

Preparing for surgery

Of great importance is the preoperative preparation. A week before laparoscopy, a woman needs to go on a special diet, exclude products that promote increased gas formation, such as:

  • beans;
  • soybean;
  • black bread;
  • cabbage;
  • raw vegetables and fruits;
  • muffin

On the day of the operation can not eat and drink. On the eve you must have dinner no later than 18:00. You can drink until 22:00. The surgical intervention itself is usually prescribed for the morning.

Features of laparoscopy

Laparoscopy for ovarian cystadenoma is performed under general anesthesia. After antiseptic treatment of the abdominal wall on the side where the tumor is located, the doctor makes three incisions for working tools.

  • the first hole is for air supply;
  • the second is for the camera;
  • the third is for the manipulator with which the cystadenoma will be removed.

The specialist examines the tumor and adjacent organs, then cuts off the cyst envelope, sucks the contents. All manipulations are carried out under close visual control due to the magnified image on the monitor. The extracted material is sent to the histology.

[caption id = "attachment_6651" align = "aligncenter" width = "1024"] Doctor and patient After surgery, the woman remains in the hospital for another few days.

Surgical intervention takes 20-30 minutes. After removal of cystadenoma, the openings in the peritoneum are sutured. The woman remains in the hospital for at least five days after the operation.

Rehabilitation after intervention

Antiseptic suture treatment is carried out, antibiotics are prescribed to prevent the addition of infection. Before discharge prescribed control ultrasound. Full restoration of ovarian function occurs one month after the intervention.

Treatment of folk remedies

To cure cystadenoma without surgery is impossible. However, some techniques help to stop the growth of the tumor. At the same time, there is always a risk of losing time, skipping the malignant transformation of a cyst, so you should definitely discuss the possibility of using one or another prescription with your doctor.

Burdock

To prepare the medicine you need:

  1. Take a few large leaves and grind them to a mushy state.
  2. Squeeze the juice of the plant.
  3. Store the finished medicine in the refrigerator.

Burdock juice taken in a teaspoon three times a day for a month. At the end of the course, it is necessary to evaluate the results of treatment. If the tumor has grown, such therapy should be stopped.

White acacia

A therapeutic tincture is prepared from the flowers of the plant.

  1. It is necessary to take 2 tbsp. l raw materials and pour a glass of pure medical alcohol.
  2. The tool should be left in a dark place for several days.
  3. Then the drug must be filtered and take 30 drops three times a day for a month.

Walnut

For broth, you must prepare the partition walnuts.

  1. About 4 tbsp. l raw materials are poured with a liter of water and boiled over low heat for 20 minutes.
  2. Next, remove the tool from heat and insist for an hour.
  3. Filter the drug and take 100 ml up to three times a day.

Clover

For the preparation of healing remedies it is necessary:

  1. Rip off and dry a plant that has not yet bloomed.
  2. Four dry flower heads pour a liter of boiling water, cover and insist for 12 hours.
  3. Strain the medication and drink it throughout the day.

Manipulations are recommended daily. The course of therapy is 2 months.

Components for the preparation of folk remedies - gallery

The prognosis of treatment and prevention

With timely detection of a tumor, the prognosis for treatment is favorable. One month after laparoscopy, a woman can lead a full-fledged lifestyle, plan to conceive a child. The operation, which implies the complete removal of the ovary, has disappointing consequences: the chances of conceiving a child are reduced. In addition, hormonal disorders are possible.

Often, after complete removal of the ovary, women develop adhesive disease.

Infertility

Infertility is one of the complications of ovarian cystadenoma

If it was possible to diagnose cystadenoma, it is impossible in any case to refuse therapy. As the tumor grows, the following dangerous complications can develop:
  • cyst rupture;
  • malignant tumor transformation;
  • twist cysts.

Due to the fact that the exact causes of the development of the tumor are unknown, special measures for the prevention of the disease do not exist. However, we can confidently say that the risk of complications is minimized for those women who lead a healthy lifestyle and undergo a preventive examination every six months by a gynecologist.

Cyst on the left or right ovary: what to do - video

Cistadenoma can not be left without attention. Due to the timely appeal to a specialist can quickly cure the disease and reduce the risk of unpleasant complications.

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