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Cervicitis of the cervix: symptoms and treatment, causes

What it is? Cervicitis of the cervix is ​​inflammation of the cervix, if you say it in simple language. But, not so simple - let's consider the issue in detail.

Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the cervix and the mucous plug inside the cervical canal, a protective barrier is formed between the vagina and the inner cavity of the uterus. When certain factors cause inflammation in the cervix, a diagnosis of cervicitis is made.

It is established that such inflammation can be both in the outer (vaginal) segment of the cervix - exocervicitis, and in the inner part of the neck, endocervicitis, which is turned into the uterine cavity. Pathology is most prevalent among women of young and middle age (about 2/3 of cases), somewhat less often the symptoms of cervicitis of the cervix are met in the menopausal period.

Content

Causes of cervicitis

Cervicitis of the cervix

Inflammation of the internal or external area of ​​the cervix arises after infection in the mucous membrane. Pathogenic microflora (chlamydia, gonococci, treponema, trichomonads, genital herpes viruses, human papillomavirus) enters the cervix sexually; Conditionally pathogenic microbes (staphylococci, streptococci, fungi, E. coli) penetrate through blood or lymph from other organs (for example, the rectum).

To factors contributing to the development of cervicitis include any diseases and conditions in which general and local (vaginal) resistance decreases:

  • urogenital infection with sexual transmission;
  • ruptures of the cervix in labor;
  • abortions, curettage of the uterine cavity;
  • early sexual activity, frequent change of partners;
  • non-observance of the rules of intimate hygiene, improper use of tampons, napkins, wearing an intrauterine device beyond the term;
  • allergy to contraceptives (on latex, spermicides);
  • hormonal imbalance (dysfunction of the ovaries, thyroid gland, pituitary gland);
  • autoimmune and rheumatic diseases;
  • immunodeficiency after severe infections, against HIV.

In isolated form, cervicitis is extremely rare, often combined with other diseases of the female genitalia: colpitis, pseudo-erosions, bartholinitis, etc.

Symptoms of cervicitis of cervix

Symptoms of cervicitis of cervix

By the duration of the flow, acute and chronic cervicitis of the cervix is ​​isolated, and the focal and diffuse forms are affected by the degree of damage. Acute cervicitis is manifested by itching in the vagina, burning with urination, pain in the sacrum and in the lower abdomen, swelling after sexual intercourse.

Vaginal discharge depending on the pathogen can be purulent and abundant (with gonorrheic cervicitis) or meager and inconspicuous (with chlamydia ), but almost always they are accompanied by an unpleasant odor and uncomfortable sensations.

With erased or chronic form of cervicitis, signs and symptoms will be expressed slightly. The nature of the secretions can be cautious - the mucus is more turbid and abundant . There is an increase in the number of vaginal whiteness for several days after menstruation and the appearance of bloody inclusions after sexual intercourse.

The diagnosis of cervicitis is not difficult - it can be done by any gynecologist after examining the cervix with mirrors and detecting areas of altered mucosa with redness, swelling, ulceration, purulent application. A more accurate picture can be seen with colposcopy, when pathological changes are output to a large monitor.

At the next stage of diagnosis it is necessary to find out the cause that led to the development of cervical inflammation. For this, the following studies are carried out:

  • smear microscopy;
  • Slowing the smear on the flora and sensitivity to antibiotics;
  • ELISA and PCR diagnostics for determining the pathogen;
  • histological examination of cervical biopsy;
  • determination of the level of estrogen and progesterone hormones.

Treatment of cervicitis cervicitis

Treatment of cervicitis cervicitis

Choose a regimen for cervicitis and the duration of the course can only doctor-gynecologist, taking into account the form and duration of the disease, data on the pathogen, as well as individual characteristics of the patient's health. There are several general stages in the treatment of cervicitis:

Устранение причины – назначаются антибиотики (доксициклин, ровамицин, сумамед, максаквин), противовирусные (ацикловир, противогерпетический иммуноглобулин), противогрибковые средства (флюконазол). 1. Elimination of the cause - antibiotics (doxycycline, rovamycin, sumamed, maksakvin), antiviral (acyclovir, antiherpetic immunoglobulin), antifungal agents (fluconazole) are prescribed.

The local treatment is not shown in the acute stage with "bacterial cervicitis" diagnoses: the suppositories and ointments do not penetrate into the deep layers of the epithelium, where the main focus of inflammation is located, and can contribute to the ascending spread of the infection.

Therefore, the drugs are prescribed systemically (in the form of injections, tablets). When revealing a disease with sexual transmission, it is necessary to treat a woman's partner.

Хирургическое удаление измененной слизистой шейки матки (используется только при хроническом цервиците) – применяют криодеструкцию, лазеротерапию, элекрокоагуляцию. 2. Surgical removal of the altered mucous cervix of the uterus (used only for chronic cervicitis) - use cryodestruction, laser therapy, electrocautery.

Восстановление нормальной флоры влагалища (тампоны с антисептиками, свечи с молочнокислыми бактериями). 3. Restoration of normal flora of the vagina (tampons with antiseptics, candles with lactic bacteria).

Выравнивание гормонального фона – подбираются оральные контрацептивы, назначаются свечи с эстрогенами. 4. Leveling the hormonal background - selected oral contraceptives, appointed candles with estrogens.

Повышение местного иммунитета – магнитотерапия, влагалищные грязевые тампоны, электрофорез. 5. Increased local immunity - magnetotherapy, vaginal mud tampons, electrophoresis.

Повышение общего иммунитета – витамины, иммуномодуляторы. 6. Increase in overall immunity - vitamins, immunomodulators.

Complications of cervicitis cervix

In the absence of timely treatment of inflammatory disease of the cervix (cervicitis), erosions, cysts and infiltrates occur, tissue is tightened, the infection spreads to the upper parts of the reproductive system.

Against the background of chronic inflammation, dangerous complications can develop in the form of violation of the structure of the organs (ectropion), infertility , malignant tumors, habitual miscarriage.

Cervicitis in pregnancy

Inflammation of the cervix during pregnancy can be a serious problem for both the future mother and her baby. In the early stages, the frequency of abortion and infection in the amniotic fluid increases, which can lead to impaired fetal development.

For the second half of pregnancy there is a risk of placental insufficiency and premature birth.

During labor, the risks of traumatic cervical ruptures and infection of the child during passage of the genital tract in women diagnosed with cervicitis of the cervix uteri increase. Treatment during pregnancy is carried out using drugs that are as safe as possible for the fetus (sumamed, ceftriaxone).

In order to avoid negative effects of cervicitis in the cervix during pregnancy, gynecologists are advised to approach their health responsibly at the planning stage: a woman and her sexual partner should be examined and treated before conception.

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