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Thyrotoxicosis, what is it? - symptoms and treatment, complications

In a simple language, thyrotoxicosis can be described as a failure in the thyroid gland, accompanied by a violation of the production of vital hormones, which leads to the development of the disease.

Thyrotoxicosis of the thyroid gland - what is it?

Thyrotoxicosis is a pathological condition of the thyroid gland, in which the body begins to produce hormones in an increased amount, against which the entire body suffers from symptoms of intoxication.

Thyrotoxicosis

Depending on the severity of the disease, three degrees of thyrotoxicosis are distinguished:

  • 1 degree (mild form) - a marked clinical picture is absent, the patient turns to the specialist mainly with complaints about malfunctions in the nervous system (irritability, insomnia, neurosis, headaches);
  • 2 degree (medium gravity) - the weight of the patient's body is rapidly decreasing, weight loss can reach more than 10 kg per month, except for this, dyspnea, heart palpitations;
  • 3 degree (severe form) - there is a depletion of the patient, a violation in the work of vital organs, signs of general intoxication.

There is another form of the disease - subclinical thyrotoxicosis, in this case the patient has no clinical manifestations of pathology, however, blood tests show an excess of thyroid hormones in the body.

In the absence of timely diagnosis and medical intervention, this form of the disease leads to a violation of the heart rhythm, insomnia, neurosis, clotting of veins with thrombi, tremor of extremities.

Excessive production of hormones can be caused by many causes, the most common of which are:

  • Diffuse thyrotoxicosis (diffusively toxic goiter or Basedova disease) - in most cases caused by autoimmune disorders, as a result of which the thymus gland begins to produce antibodies that destroy their own cells;
  • Toxic thyrotoxicosis (or toxic adenoma) - in the thyroid gland formed a node that begins to produce hormones - most often this species occurs in the elderly;
  • Diseases of the pituitary gland are benign;
  • Injuries of the thyroid gland, transferred surgical interventions, inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland;
  • Treatment with iodine-containing drugs;
  • Overdose of drugs - synthetic analogues of thyroid hormones.

Content

Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, clinical signs

Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis

The disease causes disruption of the vital organs and systems, so the clinical signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis may differ sufficiently in different patients, the main symptomatology is:

  1. From the nervous system - irritability, insomnia, anxiety, headaches, neurosis;
  2. From the cardiovascular system - heart palpitations, cardiac arrhythmia, increased blood pressure, the development of heart failure;
  3. From the skin - increased sweating, lower body temperature, hair loss;
  4. Sensation of a foreign body in the throat, difficulty in swallowing.

One of the characteristic symptoms of an overdose of thyroid hormones by the body is a glaucoma (protrusion of eyeballs from orbits) and goiter development. The patient is afraid of sudden light, experiencing pain, tears flow from the eyes.

On the part of the genitourinary system, patients either have a decreased or no sexual desire, erectile dysfunction in men and menstrual cycle disorders in women.

Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in women

Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in women

characteristic symptoms, photo

Thyrotoxicosis in women affects the work of the reproductive organs, namely the uterus and ovaries, resulting in the following symptoms:

  • Violations of the menstrual cycle - the absence of menstruation for several months, smearing bloody discharge from the vagina in the middle of the cycle;
  • Infertility ;
  • Decrease or total absence of libido;
  • Impossibility to endure pregnancy if conception did occur.

In addition, with an excess of thyroid hormones in the body, osteoporosis develops rapidly in women, leading to fractures of the bones even in the most minor injuries.

Diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis

To diagnose a patient with thyrotoxicosis, the doctor appoints to take blood tests for hormones of the thyroid gland (T3, T4 and TTG). At a considerable excess of the indices from the norm, the specialist puts the diagnosis - hyperthyroidism , which should be further confirmed by other methods of research:

  • Analyzes for the detection of antibodies (needed to establish the autoimmune cause of the disease);
  • Ultrasound of the thyroid gland;
  • MRI or CT;
  • Consultation of an ophthalmologist and the definition of the cause of exophthalmos (pchegoglazia).

Treatment of thyrotoxicosis, drugs

Treatment of thyrotoxicosis, drugs

To determine the method of treatment of thyrotoxicosis, first of all, to identify the "source" of the disease. The most common cause of development is the Basedova disease.

At the initial stage of the pathology, medical treatment is effective, namely, the administration of thyreostatics (drugs that reduce the activity of the thyroid gland) to the patient - Merkazolil, Tyrozol, Propitsil. The dose of the drug and the duration of treatment is determined by the doctor individually for each individual patient with thyrotoxicosis. Usually, these drugs should be taken for at least 1 year.

In destructive disorders of thyroid tissue, patients are prescribed a course of treatment with glucocorticosteroids - this helps reduce the damaging processes in the gland and somewhat reduce the progression of the disease.

After a course of treatment with thyrostatics, the patient, if necessary, undergoes surgery.

Treatment of thyrotoxicosis with Endonorm is carried out in the case of diagnosing the autoimmune nature of the origin of the disease. This medicine is a biologically active additive, which includes plant and natural components, their action is directed to the restoration of damaged tissues and thyroid cells.

Complications of thyrotoxicosis

A dangerous complication is thyrotoxic crisis - a condition that poses a threat to the life of the patient. Provoke the development of the crisis can be transmitted infectious diseases, surgery, stress, lack of adequate therapy.

The thyrotoxic crisis is accompanied by a number of clinical symptoms:

  • Raise body temperature to 40-41 degrees;
  • Increase in blood pressure (over 200 mm Hg systolic indicators);
  • Tachycardia (more than 180 beats per minute);
  • Development of acute heart failure;
  • Dyspeptic disorders - vomiting, diarrhea, nausea.

If the patient does not provide immediate assistance, death can result as a result of disruption of all vital organs and systems - kidneys, heart, respiratory system.

Thyrotoxicosis and pregnancy

If a woman develops thyrotoxicosis, pregnancy is almost impossible because of numerous violations from the hormonal background and the reproductive system as a whole. If the conception is still there, then such a patient should register as soon as possible in the women's consultation.

The danger of pathology for expectant mothers and babies is the formation of congenital malformations in the fetus against the background of progression of the disease (in pregnancy, all chronic diseases worsen).

Despite the risks, with the timely access to the gynecologist, examination and the appointment of adequate therapy, the pregnancy can be saved, and the child is born at the right time healthy.

If a woman is aware of the presence of thyrotoxicosis, then pregnancy should be planned. Planning includes a complete examination, treatment and consultation of the endocrinologist. With the right approach, a woman can bear and give birth to a healthy child.

Prophylaxis of thyrotoxicosis

There are no specific rules for prevention, but if the patient has cases of thyroid disease in the family, then you should carefully consider your health and be examined regularly by an endocrinologist for the purpose of prevention - examination and palpation of the gland, blood tests for TSH, T3 and T4.

Timely detection of the disease helps to avoid many complications.

Individuals with identified hyperthyroidism should adhere to a special diet. A diet with thyrotoxicosis provides for an increased calorie content in dishes to restore the body's energy reserves and prevent depletion.

Avoid eating foods rich in iodine - shrimp, mussels, sea kale, sea fish - this can lead to a deterioration in the general condition and the progression of the disease.

Interesting
2017-02-11 08:58:58
Save me and save me from this filth! Chur, Chur, Chur.
Hmm.
2017-11-13 05:55:01
Everything is now being treated. Remove the gland or part of the gland and prescribe hormones in tablets. People live to a very old age.

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