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Streptodermia in children: symptoms and treatment, photo, how the disease begins

What it is?

Streptodermia is an infectious and inflammatory disease with a purulent lesion of the skin caused by the action of beta-hemolytic pyogenic streptococcus. It develops as a result of the defeat of the sweat glands and the sebaceous-hairy skin structures (photo).

It shows a superficial lesion, mostly smooth skin. Primary elements of impetigo are flicks (flaccid vesicles), filled with transparent exudate, prone to rapid growth and fusion. Affection is affected by the delicate structure of the dermis, which is due to the predominant defeat of female and child skin.

streptodermia in children

The disease is contagious, the causative agent has an easy introduction into the children's organism when contacting an infected child, through toys, clothes or common household items. It is possible to carry the infection through an insect bite and contaminated hands. The impetus to the development of infectious pathology can serve as:

  • skin scratching;
  • maceration of the upper layer of the skin;
  • a violation in its alkaline balance;
  • damage to the mucous layer in rhinitis or otitis;
  • decreased immune functions.

Content

How does streptodermia begin in children?

streptodermia in children photo as it starts

how does streptodermia begin in children, photo

The latent (incubation) period of streptoderma lasts from one to one and a half weeks (10 days) until the first signs of the disease appear. It is in this period that the probability of infection is very high. Because, on the skin or in the child's body, the pathogen can be for a long time without manifesting pathological processes.

With this form of the presence of the pathogen in the body, the child is a carrier, sometimes passive infection of others occurs even in the ignorance of his parents, which explains such outbreaks of infection in children's groups.

The child is contagious during the entire incubation period of the pathogen. It is for this period that quarantine is established. But, with a complicated course of infection and an extensive step-by-step process of damaging the dermis, the period of the disease lasts from two to four weeks.

The development of pathological processes on the skin surface begins with the infiltration of the infection in the children's body and the production of epidermolysis, a toxin of a pathogenic bacterium that causes a characteristic symptomatology on the skin.

In children, the onset of streptodermia can be determined by:

  1. Evidence on the dermal surface of small bubbles filled with turbid exudate. Most often they are located on the dermal surface of the face, limbs, on the skin of the back and buttocks;
  2. Itching and burning in places of localization;
  3. Skin pigmentation in the area of ​​inflammation;
  4. Apathy, weakness, depression and loss of appetite.

This symptomatology differs little from the manifestations of urticaria , atopic dermatitis or pityriasis . Without proper diagnosis, infection with impetigo can easily be confused with them.

Only a week after the end of the incubation period, the first characteristic signs of streptoderma appear in the form of specific skin rashes.

Symptoms of streptoderma in a child, stage

Symptoms of streptoderma in children

photo 3

Based on the current pathological processes and the degree of depth of the dermis, three stages of streptodermia are distinguished, the symptoms in children are manifested:

Пузырной стрептодермией (буллезной – от термина булла-пузырек). 1) Bubble streptodermia (bullous - from the term bulla-vesicle). It is characterized by a superficial lesion of the dermis with the formation of small bubbles and small islands of inflamed skin.

Signs of cystic streptodermia are caused by the appearance on the skin of a child of a small red speck. During the day on the spot, a flicten (bubble) is formed, surrounded by a bright red rim and filled with purulent-serous exudate. As the disease progresses, the amount of bubble rashes increases. They can be the most unexpected sizes - from scanty, up to one and a half centimeters in diameter.

The first, appeared bubbles burst, pouring yellow-brown exudate, which forms crusts in the form of bumps. At the slightest trauma, or an awkward movement, they easily move away from the place, exposing the inflamed erythematous skin surface. Bubble rash can merge, forming lesions of different sizes and configurations.

The usual localization of the rashes is the skin of the face and hands of the child. When the elements of the rash are arranged in the folds of the nasolabial triangle, the infection very often penetrates the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and mouth, covering them completely. The process of crust formation is accompanied by severe itching.

On the head of a child, streptoderma, in the form of clearly defined foci, appears precisely as a result of scratching and skidding of the infection on healthy skin areas.

In recent years, the bubble stage of impetigo began to manifest itself differently, often there are changes in the very structure of the vesicles. Their tire has become more dense, they do not increase in size and do not open.

Such a bubble variety is found in the defeat of the peri-oral fenula. A bubble filled with exudate surrounds the base of the nail, taking the shape of a horseshoe, in medicine this form is called a tournament.

Often there are large bubbles with a drying core, belted by a roller filled with purulent fluid. If the time does not begin to treat streptodermia in children, then with extensive skin lesion and attachment of background pathologies, the child's condition can dramatically worsen and manifest:

  • febrile condition with febrile temperature;
  • loss of strength (muscle weakness) and muscle pain;
  • signs of lymphadenopathy in the areas adjacent to the outbreak;
  • apathy for food and nausea.

When recovering, there are no traces left on the pathological foci.

Стадией небуллезного развития , обусловленной глубоким поражением эпидермиса и развитием плохо заживающих крупных пузырей и болезненных язвенных образований – стрептококковая эктима. 2) The stage of nebulous development , caused by a deep epidermal lesion and the development of poorly healing large blisters and painful ulcerative formations - streptococcal ecthima.

In the non-bulletic stage of streptodermia in children, the symptoms are manifested by a rapid increase in vesicle formation. Soon they dry up, turning into a yellow-green crust, densely sitting on the skin. When it is rejected, there is a peptic ulcer covered with pus.

Since at this stage the deep layer of the dermis is affected, during healing, well-marked scars remain. Such a lesion of the skin is noted mainly on the limbs.

Стадией хронического течения , как следствие запущенности процесса или не эффективной терапии стрептодермии. 3) Stage of chronic course , as a result of neglect of the process or inefficient therapy of streptoderma.

The chronic stage is caused by episodic manifestations on the dermal layer of large focal inflammations and the erupting rash on them. Opening of the blisters is accompanied by the formation of yellowish transparent crusts. If they are removed, purulent-bloody exudate is allocated.

After healing, the foci of inflammation are covered with a slightly pink flaky skin. With timely and properly selected treatment in children streptoderma, it is possible to prevent relapse of the disease and a long-term chronic process.

Examination and diagnosis

The examination begins with a visual diagnosis, which determines the specific signs of the disease, the nature and depth of the lesion of the skin. Bacteriological studies of bladder exudate and parallel testing of the reaction of bacteria to antibiotics are prescribed.

In the form of chronic course, the endocrine system and gastrointestinal organs are examined, the analysis of blood biochemistry and the analysis of feces for the determination of helminths are carried out.

How to treat streptodermia in a child with the greatest effect and avoid mistakes in the selection of therapy? - To determine the differential diagnosis to exclude similar pathologies - pityriasis, eczema and dermatoses. As noted above, streptodermia with similar signs begins, but the treatment is different.

Treatment of streptoderma in children, drugs

Treatment of streptoderma in children, drugs

Treatment of streptoderma in the child is aimed at eliminating the pathogen, strengthening the protective functions of immunity and stopping the main symptoms. As systemic therapy are appointed:

  1. Preparations of antibacterial action of macrolides and penicillins. It can be - "Amoxiclav", "Erythromycin" or "Flemoxin" and "Azithromycin" course for the entire incubation period. In severe cases - "Tsefazolin" intramuscularly.
  2. With a slow or recurrent process, sulfanilamide therapy is administered in the form of "Sulfadimezin".
  3. As an immunocorrective therapy, preparations of "Likopid", "Amiksin" and their analogues (oral intake) and intramuscular injection of "Immunofan" are effective.
  4. The microflora in the intestine is restored by probiotics and prebiotics - "Normobaktom" or "Lineksom".
  5. Itching is facilitated by antihistamines in the form of preparations "Suprastin", "Zodak", or "Tavegila".
  6. Drugs that increase the body's resistance to infections in the form of tinctures - Eleutherococcus, Echinacea, Levsea.
  7. Vitamin supplements and complexes.

Local therapy includes:

  • Antiseptic agents that prevent the destructive effect of putrefactive bacteria. This can include - boric, salicylic and levomitsetinovy ​​alcohol, zelenka and methylene chatter, disinfecting drugs or their analogues - Chlorhexidine, Miramistina, Rivanola or cauterizing remedy Resorcinol.
  • The use of a wide range of zinc-based pastes, combined agents (Gyioxysone) and streptodermia ointments in children with severe itching - tetracycline, erythromycin, linkomycin, streptocid-based, creams and ointments with a glucocorticosteroid basis such as "Lorinden" or "Advantan"
  • To improve the tissue trophism, it is recommended to have a course of sessions of autohemotherapy, ultraviolet therapy, laser therapy and UHF.

: на время всего лечебного курса водные процедуры и купание больных детей запрещается, из-за высокой контагиозности инфекции. Important : during the entire treatment course, water procedures and bathing of sick children are prohibited, because of the high contagiousness of the infection. Only light wiping of healthy areas of the skin with a damp soft cloth is permissible.

Preventive measures and prognosis

Due to the high infectivity of streptoderma, sick children should be isolated from the collective. Communication with contact children should be isolated by quarantine for a ten-day period. For the entire period of treatment, careful hygiene should be observed.

To prevent the spread of pathology, personal belongings, toys and utensils of the child are subject to careful handling and disinfection. A sick child should have a balanced diet saturated with vitamins and proteins. To enhance the protective functions of immunity, measures are needed to strengthen and temper the organism.

In the overwhelming majority, pediatric streptoderma is successfully cured. The manifestation of chronic stages and relapses is noted in socially disadvantaged and weakened children.

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