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Decryption of analyzes

Spermogram: preparation, standards and decoding results

To determine the ability of a man to conceive children, it is enough to pass only a spermogram, and only a few hours later (and in some laboratories even after 1 hour) the results of the analysis will be known.

The study of sperm can not only determine the ability of a man to become a father, but also to see the problems that may prevent pregnancy. Observation of sperm under a microscope makes it possible to assess the degree of their viability, mobility, as well as to establish the presence of pathological forms.

Content

Preparing for semen

Preparing for semen

The results of the study will not be accurate if you do not follow the rules of preparation for semen. Violation of at least one of the points may affect the results so much that the doctor misinterprets them and makes a diagnosis that does not correspond to the truth.

  • Sex abstinence for at least 3 days. Moreover, it implies both ordinary sexual contact and masturbation. This requirement exists in order for the ejaculate to accumulate in itself the number of spermatozoa, which usually happens in a given man.
  • Refrain from taking alcoholic beverages a week before the analysis. Alcohol adversely affects sperm motility, so the doctor may misinterpret the degree of their activity.
  • Abstinence from smoking 3 days before analysis. Nicotine also reduces sperm motility, and also reduces their concentration.
  • Spermogram need to take at least a week after suffering an infectious disease. This is due to the fact that with ARVI, influenza or other inflammatory processes in the body, the number of leukocytes increases not only in the blood, but also in the semen. The presence of leukocytes significantly slows down the movement of sperm cells and changes the consistency of the ejaculate.
  • 3 days before the analysis, it is necessary to exclude visiting the bath or washing in a hot bath. An elevated temperature will drastically reduce sperm concentration and motility.

The same rules must be followed by those who plan to conceive a child and track ovulation.

They are instructions on how to avoid lowering the quality of sperm before the day of the alleged release of the egg from the dominant follicle.

How to take semen

Material for semen is collected using masturbation directly in the laboratory (if there is a specially designed room) or at home, if it is possible to deliver the ejaculate for an hour within an hour.

The best conditions for analysis are the walls of the clinic, because there the semen enters the study a few minutes after it has been collected.

How to take semen If masturbation does not allow semen to emerge, then a partner can contribute to this. It is important to remember that vaginal or oral intercourse must be interrupted in order for the entire volume of seminal fluid to be poured into a special container.

However, interrupted sexual intercourse can be applied only in extreme cases when masturbation can not cause proper arousal.

Andrologists do not recommend this method of collecting sperm, since the first portion of seminal fluid, usually poured not into the tube, but into the cavity of the mouth or vagina of the partner.

Interpretation of the results of semen

The study of the material obtained usually lasts no more than an hour. Parameters such as volume, color, acidity, liquefaction time, mobility, spermagglutination and quantitative indicators of seminal fluid are evaluated.

Then the doctor deciphers the results of the sperm and assigns, if necessary, treatment or additional examination.

Volume : must be at least 2 ml. If the value is below normal, it may signal dysfunction of the seminal vesicles or prostate gland, as well as obstruction of the ejaculatory ducts.

Color : normally has a dull white color, but even transparent sperm is not an absolute indicator of the presence of problems in the composition of the ejaculate.

Quantity in 1 ml : the norm assumes from 20 to 120 million sperms. The higher the quantity to the upper limit of the norm, the better this indicator is. However, going beyond the limits of the norm is also fraught with problems: it is difficult for sperm cells to break through the egg wall due to the large crowding.

Ejaculate total: normally from 40 to 600 million sperm. If both categories of sperm count tests show values ​​below the norm, then the doctor can make an unequivocal conclusion - their concentration in the seminal fluid is insufficient.

Liquefaction time : not more than 60 minutes. Immediately after collecting the analysis, the sperm is viscous, but over time it begins to thin. If the received material did not begin to thin out within an hour, then with a longer period of time it will not begin liquefaction either.

PH level : acidity should normally be at least 7.2. If the indicator is lower than that required by the WHO standards, this indicates the presence of an inflammatory process in the organs of the urogenital system, to which the sperm responds by reducing its acidity.

Motility : determined by assessment of four categories of sperm.

  • Category A (progressively active)
  • Category B (progressively slow moving)
  • Category C (non-progressive)
  • Category D (fixed)

Normal semen readings suggest that category A sperm must be at least 25%, or category A and B spermatozoa combined should be at least 50%.

Pathological forms : are present in almost every man's ejaculate, but normally they should not exceed 50%. Pathology can be observed in the form of deformation or anomalous structure of the head, flagellum, cervix sperm.

Leukocytes : at least 1 million leukocytes per 1 ml of seminal fluid. An increase in the number of these cells most often indicates inflammation of the prostate.

Spermagglutination : with normal ejaculate, the phenomenon of gluing sperm is not observed.

Spermogram method Kruger

Spermogram method Kruger

This study is considered to be more extensive and accurate compared with the standard sperm quality assessment. It allows you to study the morphology of sperm, which is impossible with a normal study. According to WHO standards, only the sperm head is analyzed in detail.

Spermogram Kruger involves the study not only the head but also the cervix. In addition, this option has more stringent criteria for assessing the quality of the ejaculate (especially in conjunction with the Mar-test).

The parameters of the norm for semen according to the Kruger method have the following indicators:

  1. Amount : 15 ppm for 1 ml of seminal fluid.
  2. Motility: active motile sperm at least 32%
  3. Features of morphology : the presence of sperm with one oval head and one flagellum. The study of the presence of bad sperm morphology is the main purpose of the Krbger study.

Mar-test and semen

The study is used to determine infertility due to the immune factor. The test can be conducted in two variations:

  • Direct - assuming the use of sperm.
  • Indirect - assuming the use of plasma.

The most detailed results of the study are achieved by performing the Mar-test in conjunction with the usual sperm analysis or with the spermogram according to the Kruger method.

If the results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities, this does not always indicate male infertility.

The reasons for deviation of the spermogram from the standard values ​​can be stress or the collection of analysis not in the clinic, but at home (here a long delivery to the laboratory will play its role).

The main pathological conditions of seminal fluid

Azoospermia - involves the complete absence of sperm in seminal fluid. They may not be due to the fact that they are not formed at all or due to the fact that they can not get into the ejaculate through the vas deferens.

Akinospermia - means the absolute immobility of sperm in seminal fluid. Sperm cells are themselves alive, but they are unable to move and, therefore, fertilize an egg cell.

Hemospermia - implies the presence of blood in the semen. Usually arises due to damage to the vessels of the genital oragna.

Cryptospermia - the term is used to refer to an excessively small number of sperm in the ejaculate. As a rule, these are single sperm cells that can only be detected in the sediment after the centrifuge.

Leukocytospermia - increase of leukocytes in sperm. Similar problems arise in the presence of an inflammatory process in the prostate or in the body as a whole.

Oligospermia is a diagnosis that means that the volume of ejaculate is below the normal value. The diagnosis can be made erroneously, if not the whole portion of the sperm is in the container.

Necrospermia - the absence of live sperm in seminal fluid.

How to improve the quality of semen?

How to improve the quality of semen?

If the results of the analysis reveal problems in the seminal fluid, the andrologist will prescribe a treatment to improve the quality of the spermogram, which may have several components:

Drug therapy - can be aimed at both reducing leukocytosis and increasing the concentration and motility of spermatozoa.

Accordingly, a course of antibiotics will be prescribed to eliminate the inflammatory processes, and such drugs as Tribestan, Speman, Spermaktin, Androdoz will be prescribed to change the quality of sperm.

Herbal - can help improve sperm performance better than chemicals.

  • Spinish infusion: a tablespoon into a glass of boiling water. Drink during the day for a month. Promotes increased sperm motility.
  • Dried fruit cocktail: chopped aloe leaves, figs, lemon peel, raisins, dried apricots, walnuts, dates should be taken in equal parts, minced and placed in the refrigerator. Take 2 teaspoons daily.

— самыми первыми мерами по улучшению спермы должны стать отказ от спиртного и курения, а также установление режима правильного питания, лишенного избытка жирной пищи и богатого блюдами с большим количеством зелени: петрушки, базилика. It must be remembered - the very first measures to improve sperm should be the refusal of alcohol and smoking, as well as the establishment of proper diet, devoid of excess fatty foods and rich in dishes with lots of greens: parsley, basil.

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