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Sinus arrhythmia of the heart, what is it? Signs, types and treatments in children and adults

Both adult and child may experience sinus arrhythmia. Such a heart rhythm disorder occurs in different people and only in half of the percent of cases it is a pathology. Let us examine what this problem is and who usually has it.

Content

Sinus arrhythmia of the heart - what is it?

Sinus arrhythmia of the heart - what is it Sinus arrhythmia of the heart - this is the wrong sinus rhythm, which is characterized by varying heart rate.

Sinus rhythm is the heart rate imposed by the pacemaker (sinus node) with equal intervals between them. If the coordination in the work of the heart remains, but the intervals between its contractions differ from each other, then it is a question of sinus arrhythmia.

To a certain extent, this condition can occur in any healthy person, since the heart cannot constantly contract with equal frequency: sometimes the rhythm accelerates, sometimes it slows down. Minimal frequency changes are usually associated with the breathing process.

If severe sinus arrhythmia is not associated with the act of breathing, this may indicate a malfunction of the autonomic system or problems with the cardiovascular system.

Diseases and conditions that are accompanied by this pathology:

  • hormonal imbalance ( menopause , pregnancy, endocrine disorders);
  • diseases of the musculoskeletal system, especially of the spine (hernia, osteochondrosis, etc.);
  • stress and emotional overload;
  • liver disease;
  • exposure to low temperatures;
  • vegetative vascular dystonia , etc.

The causes of sinus arrhythmia can be varied, but in most cases this pathology does not cause the patient serious problems.

Sinus arrhythmia in children

Parents, after performing an ECG in a child, can often see this diagnosis in the conclusion line. Usually, adults are afraid of any incomprehensible concept, and they begin to pester the doctor with a question: what is sinus arrhythmia of the heart and how dangerous is it for the child.

The heart of a child may shrink with a different frequency depending on age. So, in babies of the first days of life, a heart rate in the range of 120-140 beats per minute is considered normal. Every year it decreases and at the age of 13-15 becomes equal to the norm of an adult (60-90 beats per minute).

This type of rhythm disorder in a child is absolutely normal and in most cases is associated with respiratory processes.

Sinus arrhythmia in children is due to the fact that at the time of inhalation the heart rate reflex increases, and as you exhale it slows down. In addition, the heart rate may be affected by the very process of placing the ECG sensors on a child and at the beginning of the heart rate procedure, it dramatically increases, and as the baby calms down, the rhythm slows down.

This is due to the immaturity of the nervous system of the baby and the imperfection of the regulation of vascular tone. As the child grows and develops, episodes of such sinus arrhythmia are becoming less common, and it disappears by itself.

Other causes of this pathology in children not related to breathing:

  • Genetic predisposition. If someone in the family suffers from a similar problem, then it can be transmitted to the child.
  • Congenital or acquired (rheumatism) heart defects.
  • Infectious diseases accompanied by severe intoxication. These diseases are usually accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, increased sweating and lead to dehydration. The baby quickly changes the water-salt balance, and malfunctions of the heart begin.
  • Vegetative dystonia. Disease associated with imperfect regulation of vascular tone: they either expand or contract, which leads to a number of characteristic symptoms.
  • Inflammation and swelling of the heart. Rarely encountered.

Important! Sinus arrhythmia is not a contraindication for sports. In these cases, the child is simply observed more often and an ECG and other studies are performed every few months.

Signs and types of sinus arrhythmia

Signs and types of sinus arrhythmia

Sinus arrhythmia is often not accompanied by unpleasant sensations, since it does not have a significant effect on hemodynamics (movement of blood through the vessels). If this type of arrhythmia is combined with another cardiac pathology, then pain in the region of the heart and other symptoms begin to disturb the patient.

There are several types of sinus arrhythmias, depending on the heart rate:

1. Tachyarrhythmia. Accompanied by heart palpitations over 85-90 beats per minute. During exercise, stress, injury, this condition is regarded as a variant of the norm. If it is found at rest, it may indicate the presence of heart disease, endocrine organs or vegetative-vascular dystonia.

2. Bradyarrhythmia. Heart rate slows down significantly (below 60 beats / min). In this form, the patient is worried about unpleasant symptoms in the form of dizziness, weakness, and noise in the ears. He may faint.

3. Extrasystoles - an extraordinary contraction of the heart. Maybe one-time, in these cases, it does not pay attention. If permanent extrasystoles are detected, complex diagnostics are carried out and treatment is selected.

Diagnostics

Sinus arrhythmia of the heart

ECG with sinus arrhythmia, photo

The key diagnostic method is ECG in combination with Holter monitoring. In this method of diagnosis, a portable ECG apparatus is attached to the patient for a day, which constantly records changes in the work of the heart.

At the same time, the patient keeps a diary where he writes down all the events of the day and his reaction to them.

On an ECG, this type of arrhythmia looks like a normal sinus rhythm with a difference in PP or RR intervals. The remaining indicators remain in the normal range. The emergence of arrhythmias during deep breathing and its disappearance after holding breath is of secondary importance.

About treatment of sinus arrhythmia

If the difference between cardiac fluctuations is 10% or less, then such a rhythm disturbance is considered physiological and does not require special treatment.

To eliminate possible symptoms, the patient is selected a diet, moderate exercise and taught to avoid stress. The menu includes foods rich in potassium and magnesium.

  • If sinus arrhythmia is caused by another disease, then drug treatment is aimed at eliminating the underlying problem.

Sinus arrhythmia is one of the favorable rhythm disturbances, which can be both normal and pathological. Special therapy for this type of arrhythmia is usually not required.

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