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Sinusitis: Symptoms and Treatment, Forms and Prevention

Everyone knows sinusitis, but more often doctors initially diagnose sinusitis in patients. It is necessary to distinguish between these two medical terms.

Sinusitis has various symptoms depending on the localization of inflammation, and treatment in adults and children can be fundamentally different.

Content

Sinusitis, what is it?

Sinusitis is a medical term that generalizes inflammatory processes in the nasal sinuses: the maxillary, frontal, wedge, cells of the latticed bone. Sinusitis is manifested by problems with nasal breathing (nasal congestion, discharge), headaches of point or diffuse localization, common symptoms.

Each form of sinusitis has specific symptoms, according to which it is possible to assume the localization of the inflammatory process and choose the most effective treatment regimen.

Sinusitis Symptoms and Treatment

Sinusitis and sinusitis: what's the difference?

Sinusitis is just one of several, often diagnosed, forms of sinusitis. The disease has a specific symptomatology. Often, with genyantritis doctors perform sinus punctures (up to 5-7 times), establish temporary drainage.

Causes of sinusitis:

  • Unrefined rhinitis, acute respiratory disease, influenza, measles / scarlet fever (distinguish between bacterial sinusitis, viral, fungal);
  • Changes in bone structures forming the sinuses of the nose (including congenital / traumatic deformity of the nasal septum);
  • Sensitization of the body with manifestations of allergic rhinitis , including allergy to medicines;
    adenoids, polyps in the nose.

Forms of sinusitis

Depending on the lesion of one or another appendage of the nose, several forms of sinusitis are distinguished:

  1. Sinusitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses. The most commonly diagnosed in adults and children from 7 years.
  2. Frontitis is an inflammatory lesion of the frontal sinuses.
  3. Etmoiditis - inflammation develops in the cells of the latticed bone.
  4. Sphenoiditis is an inflammation of the wedge sinus (sinus). Extremely rare form, usually combined with etmoidite.

With the course of sinusitis, the sinuses of the nose are:

  • acute (the course of the disease up to 8 weeks) and chronic;
  • one-sided and two-sided;
  • exudative (serous, catarrhal, purulent) and productive (hyperplastic, polyposis);
  • septic (infectious) and aseptic.

Symptoms of sinusitis in adults

Symptoms of sinusitis in adults

Suspicion of the formation of an inflammatory focus in one or more accessory sinuses of the nose occurs if an adult or child has a nasal congestion observed more than 7-10 days without visible improvement. Symptoms of sinusitis in adults with acute and chronic form of the disease are different.

Symptoms of acute sinusitis

  • Persistent nasal congestion;
  • Mucous / purulent discharge from the nasal passages;
  • Cough due to the flow of exudate into the pharynx (posterior wall), expectoration of abundant purulent sputum is especially strong in the mornings;
  • Feeling of bursting and heaviness in the area of ​​the inflamed sinus, especially pronounced when the head is tilted forward;
  • Pain with sinusitis in the area of ​​the affected sinus with possible irradiation in the teeth, eyes, cheekbones;
  • Puffiness and soreness over the focus of inflammation that occurs when you touch the skin;
  • Weak / missing sense of smell;
  • Hyperthermia: in the acute phase up to 38.0C and above, in the chronic phase up to 37.5C;
  • Weakness, restless sleep, lack of appetite.

Symptoms of chronic sinusitis

Symptoms of sinusitis in the chronic phase are usually scanty. The patient can note:

  • Difficulty with breathing through the nose, nasal congestion, periodically appearing crusts in the nose;
  • A small amount of mucous / purulent exudate, with purulent process smelly odor from the mouth;
  • Dryness in the throat, headache, irritability.

Specific clinical manifestations of various forms of sinusitis

  • Sinusitis is an intensifying soreness when the head is tilted or pressed on the area of ​​the maxillary sinus, the nature of the pain is quite intense and constant in time, lacrimation and photophobia.
  • Acute frontitis - swelling of the nose and eyes, increased pain during rasping the frontal sinuses, thick yellow / green mucus from the nose, irradiation of pain in the ears and teeth, relief in severe headaches occurs only in a horizontal position, a decrease in smell and taste, marked weakness and high hyperthermia.
  • Chronic frontitis - purulent sputum is abundantly allocated from the nose in the mornings after rising from bed, aching headaches.
  • Acute etmoiditis is a severe condition of the patient, tenderness of nose bridge and nose, nose breathing is difficult, hyperthermia to critical numbers, vomiting / diarrhea, severe intoxication.
  • Chronic etmoiditis - diffuse headaches, painful palpation of the bridge of the nose, nauseating smell of purulent discharge, thick mucus in the nasopharynx provokes a constant spitting, the formation of polyps.

Symptoms of sinusitis in children, features

Unlike adults, the symptoms of sinusitis in children are sufficiently blurred. The disease is most often formed against the background of sore throat or flu, often accompanied by otitis .

When examining the child, you can see:

  • breathing by mouth and during the day, and during sleep;
  • purulent exudate, flowing from the nasal passages and along the back wall of the pharynx;
  • a sharp unpleasant odor when breathing;
  • marked general symptoms - malaise, restless sleep due to difficulty breathing with a nose and dry cough;
  • no complaints of headache and almost always normal or subfebrile temperature;
  • refusal of food.

Most often in a young child, the inflammatory process from one sinus passes to the other with a predominant lesion of the sinuses of one side of the face (hemisinusitis).

Methods of treating sinusitis in adults

treatment of sinusitis in adults

The treatment scheme is appointed only after confirmation of the diagnosis of sinusitis and the definition of the localization of inflammation by instrumental studies. Usually an ENT doctor prescribes a rhinoscopy, an x-ray or a computer tomography of the sinuses of the nose.

Symptomatic measures in the treatment of sinusitis in adults include:

  • humidification of air;
  • abundant drinking;
  • air hygiene in the room (no dust, tobacco smoke);
  • high-grade food;
  • exclusion of drafts and supercooling.

Medicinal treatment of sinusitis, drugs and antibiotics

  1. Anesthesia - analgesics (Analgin, Tempalgin, etc.).
  2. Vasoconstrictive drops (Naphthyzinum, Nazivinum, Oksimetazolinum) - only for reduction of an edema no more than 3 days. Prolonged use activates the process of atrophy of the nasal mucosa, and large doses can provoke the stopping of breathing in young children.
  3. Antihistamines are used only for medical purposes.
  4. Antibiotics for sinusitis are used only in the bacterial nature of inflammation. Effective Ampicillin, Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone. Treatment for acute sinusitis includes a course of individually selected antibiotic for a duration of 9-14 days. At the catarrhal form (including fungal lesion) the local preparation Fusafunzhin is especially effective.
  5. Immunostimulants - used to prevent relapses.

Radical treatment

Radical treatment of sinusitis

Surgical treatment is indicated for severe sinusitis, which can not be treated conservatively. Treatment of chronic sinusitis necessarily involves the evacuation of accumulated in the nasal sinuses of exudate.

Methods of cleansing the nasal sinuses:

  • Puncture - a puncture of the inflamed sinus and its washing with solutions of antiseptics and antibiotics (Dioxydin, Peloidin, etc.), enzyme solutions (Chymotrypsin, Lidase) with very viscous mucus. The effectiveness of antibiotics is increased when combined with Fluimutsil.
  • The "cuckoo" method - surgically, the nasal sinuses are cleaned by suction with further washing of the sinuses with antibiotics.
  • Aspiration technique with the use of the catheter "YAMIK" - effective in the defeat of several sinuses and only with exudative forms of inflammation.
  • Endoscopic rhinosurgery - resection of the posterior part of the median nasal cone (used for sphenoiditis), elimination of polyps, septoplast (correction of the nasal septum).

Treatment of sinusitis in the home

All medical methods used in the home are always discussed with the doctor. The attending ENT doctor can recommend:

  • Rinsing the nose using a special teapot, a bottle-pulverizer or a rubber pear. Prepare a warm soda solution.
  • Steam inhalation using decoction of eucalyptus, tea tree oil, mint.

Complications of sinusitis:

  • Meningitis , encephalitis.
  • Increase in intraocular, intracranial pressure.
  • Phlegmon and abscesses, purulent melting of bone structures.
  • Thrombosis of the cavernous sinus and sepsis.

Prophylaxis of the sinost

Prophylaxis of sinusitis in adults and children includes the timely treatment of acute colds, the elimination of chronic foci of infection in the nose and throat (polyps, adenoids, caries).

It is important to maintain the immune defense of the body at the proper level and if not more than a week, rinite - do not hesitate, and seek the advice of an ENT doctor.

Main results: symptoms and treatment of sinusitis

symptoms and treatment of sinusitis

  1. Clinic sinusitis in children less pronounced.
  2. Localization of inflammation can be determined by localization of soreness, and confirmed only by instrumental diagnostics.
  3. Antibiotics are prescribed only for the bacterial nature of inflammation. Transparent exudate in the nose - a sign of a viral infection, with bacterial inflammation - detachable from the nose of white, yellow, green.
  4. If antibiotics are ineffective, a bacteriological study and a sensitivity test for different drugs are prescribed.
  5. Antibiotic therapy in the exudative form of sinusitis necessarily combined with the evacuation of mucus from the affected sinuses (inhalation, rinsing, puncture).
Interesting
Zhenya
2016-12-09 08:51:56
Why do doctors not explain everything in detail? You are treated almost on your own. In our country in general it is dangerous to walk on the street without a barrier reef, you will catch it - and then think about it yourself how to be treated.
Lovigina
2016-12-26 16:25:20
I remember with horror "cuckoo". The truth is even worse - these are punctures, but God mercy. The main thing is to blow your nose regularly, and not immediately in two nostrils, but alternately. And if there is stuffiness - to fight uniquely by any means. Fortunately, cheap but effective funds are complete. I have a cheap penny in the medicine cabinet, I do not ask for it, but I've saved it more than once, because I'm afraid of sinusitis as a fire from childhood

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