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Thyroid - symptoms of the disease in women

Simple language about thyroid diseases in women ..

The thyroid gland takes part in all metabolic processes of the human body, is responsible for the growth of the body, has an impact on the work of almost all systems. It produces three important hormones - thyroxin and triiodothyronine (T4, T3), calcitonin, which determine its functional activity.

In the human body, iron is located on the neck in front of the larynx. It has two lobes and an isthmus connecting them. If figuratively present it, then it looks like the letter "H". Thyroid diseases occur in various forms and have a high prevalence.

In women, thyroid disease is much more common than in men. High incidence due to iodine deficiency in our country, as well as the lack of preventive measures to replenish iodine deficiency.

Symptoms of thyroid disease in women

Symptoms of thyroid disease in women

Symptoms of thyroid disease in women may go unnoticed or are not given importance, since many diseases of the gland are prone to sluggish chronic course.

Since the thyroid gland is involved in metabolic processes, the first signs of thyroid disease indicate a metabolic disorder. A woman first of all will notice an unreasonable weight gain or, on the contrary, its decrease. Also tell a lot about hair, nails and skin.

An important sign indicating a possible organ disease is a cycle disorder and impossibility of conception.

In various diseases, thyroid functions may increase or decrease. Two syndromes develop, which characterize the functional activity of the organ - hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

  • Hyperthyroidism

In hyperthyroidism, there is an increase in thyroid function - hormones are produced in quantities that exceed normal levels several times.

Hyperthyroidism can occur in diseases of the gland itself or in disorders in the systems that regulate its work (pituitary or hypothalamus).

More often thyrotoxicosis occurs in women at a young age. The increased amount of hormones contributes to the strengthening of metabolic processes and accelerating reactions in organs and tissues. This can not affect the health and general condition of the person.

Symptoms of T3 and T4 hypersecretion:

  1. Weight loss with good appetite.
  2. Increased pulse, increased systolic pressure.
  3. Loss of vision and puchitis (exophthalmos).
  4. Sleep disturbance, anxiety, irritability, trembling hands.
  5. Disruption of the monthly cycle until the disappearance of menstruation. Often there may be infertility.
  6. Increased sweating and feeling unwell in hot weather. The skin is almost always moist to the touch.
  7. Brittleness of nails and hair, the appearance of gray hair at an early age.

The thyroid gland has an increased size, in advanced cases, the increase becomes noticeable to the naked eye.

  • Hypothyroidism

The state of hypothyroidism is exactly the opposite of hyperthyroidism. If during hyperthyroidism, hormones are produced in larger quantities than the body needs, then hypothyroidism is deficient in them. In this case, the metabolic processes are slow, the disease is also developing at a slow pace, for many years a woman can live with him, writing off the symptoms for fatigue or discomfort.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism are associated with a lack of hormones T3 and T4:

  1. Weight gain due to slower metabolism. The appetite is reduced.
  2. Tendency to edema.
  3. Women with hypothyroidism constantly experience feelings of drowsiness, weakness.
  4. Blood pressure is reduced, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias.
  5. The skin of the body is prone to dryness, hair and nails brittle.
  6. A woman constantly freezes, does not tolerate low temperatures.
  7. The female reproductive system suffers: menstrual irregular, early menopause , there is a tendency to tumors in the uterus and mammary glands.
  8. On the part of the digestive system, there are disorders in the form of constipation, nausea, and the appetite is very bad.

The thyroid gland is resizing downward. In the absence of replacement therapy, atrophy of the glandular tissue occurs.

  • Inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis)

The concept of "thyroiditis" includes a number of diseases in the pathogenesis of which the inflammatory reaction lies. Depending on the course, thyroiditis is divided into acute, subacute, chronic.

Acute thyroiditis is the result of the penetration of infectious agents into the tissue of the thyroid gland. This can occur with injuries in the neck, as well as during the spread of infection from nearby organs, for example, with purulent tonsillitis, pneumonia, etc.

The main symptoms, as with any infectious disease, will be pain in the area of ​​projection of the gland, high body temperature, weakness. Blood tests show signs of acute inflammation (increased white blood cell count, increased ESR). When feeling the area of ​​the thyroid gland there is pain in the affected area, sometimes you can feel the center of purulent destruction of tissue (abscess).

In this place, a softened tissue is groped with a characteristic feeling of fluid movement, in medicine this phenomenon is called a fluctuation symptom.

Subacute thyroiditis is observed after viral diseases. Women complain of pain in the neck, which can spread to the jaw, ear, neck, thereby making it difficult to diagnose. Body temperature rises. Blood tests may or may not show signs of inflammation.

Chronic thyroiditis has two forms:

  1. Fibrous;
  2. Autoimmune.

Fibrous thyroiditis has a second name - Riedel's goiter. This is a rather rare form of goiter, which is characterized by the replacement of glandular tissue with coarse connective tissue, which later proteins fall into, and it resembles cartilage in structure.

The thyroid gland to the touch becomes like a stone, its functions gradually fade away, hypothyroidism develops.

The causes of this pathology are unknown. A petrified and enlarged gland can press on the organs of the neck, which is dangerous for the patient's life.

The disease has the greatest significance for the female population - chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

For unknown reasons, this pathology is found in women 8 times more often than in the opposite sex. The disease was studied and described by a doctor from Japan, in honor of whom this variant of thyroiditis was named Hashimoto's goiter.

Hashimoto goiter occurs due to impaired immune system. The production of antibodies against the tissues of the gland begins. What is the reason, it is not clear until the end. Sick women aged after 50.

Triggers can be trauma to the thyroid gland, thyroid surgery, as well as infectious diseases, environmental degradation, etc. Goitre Hashimoto can be inherited by the next generation.

The disease has a long course. The gland tissue is compacted, replaced by connective tissue. At the initial stages of the disease, signs of hyperthyroidism may be noted due to compensatory mechanisms, but as a result, the gland functions die out, symptoms of hypothyroidism increase.

  • Goiter and thyroid nodules

Goiter is a disease of the thyroid gland, accompanied by its increase. When knots form in the gland, the disease is called the nodular goiter. At the same time, a node can be in a single copy, several nodes can form, sometimes there are so many nodes that they are soldered together, forming conglomerates.

Nodes are easily felt by manual research. Treatment depends on the nature of the nodes. They can be benign and malignant.

For detailed symptoms and treatment methods, see the “ Endocrinology section or refer to the “ Thyroid gland ” tag.

Methods of diagnosis of the thyroid gland in various pathologies

thyroid in women, diagnosis

After examination and palpation, the endocrinologist will refer you to the following studies:

  • Determination of the level of iodine-containing hormones in the blood. Quantitative assessment will reveal the strengthening or weakening of the function.
  • Ultrasound. Perhaps the most accessible and easy way to diagnose with highly informative.
  • Scintigraphy Based on the use of radioactive isotopes. You can see the structure of the gland, assess the changes in tissue.
  • Thermography. An infrared survey is underway. Based on the fact that the affected areas and neoplasms in the tissue have a temperature different from healthy tissue.
  • MRI The informativity method is similar to ultrasound, but more expensive.
  • CT Very informative, but not cheap research method.
  • Needle biopsy for further histological examination. The origin of the studied tissue is established: malignant or benign.

The number of studies depends on the diagnosis of the patient and is determined by the doctor.

Thyroid pathologies are treatable. It is important for a woman to see a doctor at the first symptoms of a thyroid disease. When burdened with heredity or living in endemic areas, it is necessary to visit an endocrinologist to conduct an examination for prevention.

2017-04-28 05:41:02
Almost all diseases of the thyroid gland have a similar clinical picture, which can often resemble signs of other diseases or disorders.

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