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Symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy in the early stages, diagnosis and removal

To avoid unpleasant situations when planning a child, women should be aware of such unpredictable pathologies as ectopic pregnancy.

This disorder is diagnosed in 15% of patients and, in the absence of emergency care, it threatens with serious consequences, up to the lethal outcome of the future parturient woman.


Ectopic pregnancy: what is it?

Ectopic pregnancy: what is it?

Forms of ectopic pregnancy

This is a serious complication, during which the embryo attachment process does not take place inside the uterus, but outside it, for example, in the cavity of one of the fallopian tubes.

The mechanism of development of usual pregnancy is in the process of fertilization of the egg, which at this moment is in the tissues of the uterine tube. From there, the zygote enters the uterus, where there is enough room for the full growth of the embryo.

Ectopic pregnancy is a pathological phenomenon when the zygote remains in the fallopian tube, grafting to its wall.

Also, the embryo can be pushed out of the cavity of the tube, after which it is attached to one of the ovaries or to the wall of the peritoneum, continuing its development.

Depending on the location of the zygote, doctors classify an ectopic pregnancy:

  • on the abdominal;
  • on the rudimentary (when the zygote falls into the rudimentary horn of the uterus);
  • on ovarian;
  • on the pipe.

5 dangers of ectopic pregnancy

Наиболее значительная угроза данного явления заключается в возможном летальном исходе женщины, если не будут вовремя предприняты меры по его устранению. 1) The most significant threat of this phenomenon is the possible death of a woman, if not taken in time to take steps to eliminate it.

Воспалительные процессы – также одна из опасностей внематочной беременности. 2) Inflammatory processes are also one of the dangers of ectopic pregnancy.

The centers of an inflammation, as a rule, proceed in fabrics of fallopian tubes. That is why there is a high probability of repeated development of ectopic pregnancy.

Doctors recommend planning the next conception not earlier than 1.5 years after the operation.

Еще одна опасность внематочного развития плодного яйца кроется в развитии бесплодия, то есть в невозможности женщины в дальнейшем забеременеть, выносить и родить ребенка. 3) Another danger of ectopic development of the fetal egg lies in the development of infertility, that is, in the impossibility of the woman in the future to become pregnant, endure and give birth to a child.

Sometimes the fetal egg is attached quite deep to the wall of an internal organ, for example, to the peritoneum, so there is a need for serious surgical intervention.

After the operation of an ectopic pregnancy, there may be complications in the form of problems on the way to a successful conception.

Возможны разрывы внутренних органов, вследствие чего может начаться обильное кровотечение. 4) There may be ruptures of the internal organs, as a result of which excessive bleeding can begin.

After all, the embryo developing outside the womb is constantly growing. If the walls of the uterus are elastic, then, for example, there is not enough room in the pipes for the development of the zygote.

После устранения проблемы на тканях маточных труб и вокруг них может иметь место появление спаек – плотных образований, состоящих из соединительной ткани. 5) After the elimination of the problem on the tissues of the fallopian tubes and around them, the appearance of adhesions - dense formations consisting of connective tissue - can take place.

If they are available, in the case of subsequent pregnancies, the expectant mother may experience pain not only in the process of bearing the fetus, but also during labor.

Spikes are a common cause of infertility.

How to determine an ectopic pregnancy?

How to determine an ectopic pregnancy? If there is a suspicion of the development of a pathological pregnancy, it is recommended to immediately consult a specialist in gynecology.

The doctor will appoint appropriate examinations - a blood test for HCG (hormones produced by the fetal membrane), abdominal and vaginal ultrasound.

The procedure of abdominal ultrasound reveals pregnancy at 6-7 weeks, vaginal ultrasound - at 4-5 weeks. If the blood test for HCG showed the presence of pregnancy, and the embryo is not visible in the uterine cavity, it can be argued that the patient develops a pathological pregnancy.

It is important to know! Although rare, but the expert still can mistakenly diagnose ectopic pregnancy due to the fact that a fertilized egg was taken for a blood clot or fluid accumulation.

Many future mothers, despite the absence of real symptoms and satisfactory results of the survey, believe that they develop an ectopic pregnancy. How to determine whether this is so?

In this situation, doctors advise to undergo the most reliable study - laparoscopic examination. This procedure has significant advantages, which include the possibility of:

  • determine the condition of the uterine tissue;
  • assess the condition of the fallopian tubes;
  • to see if there are blood clots in the peritoneum, and also to determine their volume and quantity.

Does the test indicate ectopic pregnancy?

If, for some reason, the ovum fertilized in the fallopian tube did not move into the uterus cavity, but remained at its original position - the usual test will still show the presence of pregnancy.

After all, the mechanism of determining pregnancy using a test involves identifying the substances that are produced by the developing placenta of the fetal egg. Accordingly, the localization of the embryo can not affect the results of passing the test.

Some women are convinced that the test can not give a 100-percent guarantee, since it is quite difficult to determine an ectopic pregnancy with its help. This is not quite true.

Of course, sometimes the second strip during the test may not be brightly colored. But this is due to the fact that the production of hCG in ectopic pregnancy is slower than with the development of normal pregnancy.

Early signs of ectopic pregnancy

The first signs of ectopic pregnancy

Usually, the wrong location of the fetal egg in the woman's body does not entail the appearance of any distinctive signs in the early stages.

However, doctors have identified factors that indirectly can confirm that a woman has an ectopic pregnancy.

The first signs in the initial terms may appear in the form:

  • pain in the lower abdomen;
  • a sharp decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood plasma;
  • increase and soreness of the mammary glands;
  • constant malaise;
  • the strongest toxicosis;
  • scanty bloody discharge that is not menstruation. Scanty menstruation with ectopic pregnancy is one of the most common symptoms. Although this phenomenon can not be a direct confirmation of the wrong location of the fetal egg;
  • dizziness;
  • increased body temperature;
  • decrease in the index of blood pressure.

6 symptoms of ectopic pregnancy

The clinical picture in 9 patients out of 10 is a complex of nonspecific manifestations.

  1. Increase in the size of the uterus, which is detected during gynecological examination.
  2. Soreness when trying to physician to shift the uterine walls by hand.
  3. Insignificant swelling of the posterior fornix.
  4. The presence of a tumor-like formation in the region of one of the appendages. The consistency of the formation is similar to the consistency of the dough.
  5. Isolation of blood exudate from the genital tract. This manifestation does not always mean that there is an ectopic pregnancy. Symptoms depend on the timing and may have a different intensity.
  6. Pain in the abdomen. They can be excessively intense, "poured" or "pulling". The pain can give back, the intestine, under the shoulder blade.

What tests and tests should I take?

If the presence of an ectopic pregnancy is suspected, the doctor directs the patient to undergo examinations:

  • a blood test for the level of hCG. This study is recommended to pass several times with an interval of 3-5 days. The fact is that with improper embryo implantation, the concentration of this hormone may be insufficient to confirm that an ectopic pregnancy takes place. Analyzes for hCG necessarily confirm or refute the preliminary diagnosis;
  • Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs, including uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, appendages;
  • US of internal genital organs (vaginal examination);
  • gynecological examination on the chair;
  • laparoscopic method of diagnosis (if necessary).

Ectopic pregnancy removal

Ectopic pregnancy removal

Therapy for abnormal embryo implantation depends on many factors:

  • whether there are children in the patient;
  • whether she wishes to have children in the future;
  • what is the severity of a woman's condition;
  • on what term is pathological pregnancy;
  • what is the exact location of the embryo;
  • presence of concomitant gynecological and somatic diseases.

If it is suspected that the fetal egg is not properly located, the patient is recommended to be placed in a hospital, where she will be under round-the-clock supervision of medical personnel.


When identifying the problem at an early stage, doctors offer more sparing methods for its elimination. One such technique is laparoscopy. Its use is advisable when the embryo has not yet managed to retain its container.

Two small incisions are made in the abdominal wall of the patient. Through the first inside, an elastic tube is inserted, the end of which is equipped with a microscopic video camera that transmits the image of the operating field to the monitor.

Through the second, a tool is introduced, through which the extraction of the fetal egg is carried out by aspiration (the principle is similar to the method of implementing a vacuum abortion).

Laparoscopy is a safe procedure. The tissues of the surrounding internal organs are not subject to trauma, and there is no likelihood of the development of postoperative scars and adhesions.

On the surface of the skin remain only small traces from the incisions, which soon disappear without a trace.


In the process of such surgical intervention, the fallopian tube is exposed. After this, elements of the embryo are removed from its cavity, which are evacuated through the hole made in the wall of the peritoneum.

Tubotomy allows to maintain the integrity of the pipe, which will continue to perform its functions in the future.


This operation is shown when due to improper localization of the fetal egg in the tissues of the uterine tube irreversible processes have occurred, leading to the fact that this body will no longer be able to fulfill its purpose.

By and large, it will be enough to conduct tubotomy, but this is fraught with the repeated development of an ectopic pregnancy.

Doctors recommend conducting a tubectomy, if the preservation of the tube can lead to more severe consequences in comparison with its removal.


It is performed if there is a rupture of the fallopian tube.

The task of surgeons is to eliminate shock and blood loss in order to prevent the onset of particularly serious complications.

This is an emergency open surgery, which involves a longer rehabilitation period.

In conclusion, we should focus on another important aspect.

Regardless of the method of therapy, on the 5th-6th day after elimination of ectopic pregnancy it is necessary to undergo ultrasound, which will show the condition of all organs located in the small pelvis.

And six months after the operation, a study was recommended to determine the degree of patency of the fallopian tubes.


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