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Symptoms of pneumonia - types and features of manifestation

Often, people who have a strong or prolonged cough claim that they have pneumonia. In fact, it can be a severe ORZ or even tuberculosis and oncology.

It is necessary to distinguish these diseases from pneumonia in adults: their symptoms have characteristic features, and the treatment in each case is radically different.

Content

What is pneumonia?

What is pneumonia?

Under pneumonia should be understood as an inflammatory process in the lungs that affects the pulmonary alveoli, the actual lung tissue (not the bronchi!).

Pneumonia is most often caused by the development of pathogenic microorganisms in the lung tissue - bacteria, viruses, fungi. However, non-infectious pneumonia is sometimes diagnosed.

Symptoms of pneumonia in an adult are always accompanied by changes on the X-ray and abnormalities in laboratory blood tests. It is on the basis of these diagnostic data that the patient is diagnosed with pneumonia.

Types of pneumonia and causes of infection

Symptoms of atypical pneumonia The processes that caused pneumonia:

  • infection with infection - primary pneumonia and secondary (occurs against the background of chronic bronchitis, influenza, acute respiratory infections);
  • chemical exposure - a dangerous profession, inhalation of chlorine when using household chemicals;
  • severe allergic manifestations - bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, COPD ;
  • high dose radiation exposure;
  • aspiration - vomit, foreign bodies, food particles.

Depending on the type of infectious agent, pneumonia is distinguished:

  • bacterial - pneumococcus most often, streptococcus, staphylococcus;
  • atypical - Klebsiella, mycoplasma, chlamydia, mycoplasma, E. coli;
  • viral - cytomegalovirus, influenza virus;
  • HIV indicator - pneumocystis;
  • fungal - candida.

The following species separation of pneumonia is also used:

  • community-acquired (home) - typical (without reducing immunity) and immunodeficient;
  • nosocomial - with hospitalization for more than 2 days, use of artificial ventilation, treatment with cytostatics, transplantation of donor organs;
  • associated with medical interventions - often among residents of nursing homes, during hemodialysis.

Predisposing to the development of pneumonia factors:

  • smoking, alcoholism;
  • hypothermia;
  • frequent colds;
  • concomitant pathology - heart disease, chronic pulmonary pathology, diabetes ;
  • immunodeficiency including HIV;
  • insufficient care for the elderly, bedridden patients;
  • postoperative period;
  • adverse living conditions, malnutrition.

Symptoms of pneumonia

The first symptoms of pneumonia

The first symptoms of pneumonia, photo

Incubation, the period from infection to the onset of the first signs of pneumonia in an adult, with or without a temperature, lasts from 1-3 days to 2 weeks.

A long incubation period is characteristic of atypical inflammation.

Depending on the area of ​​the lesion of the lungs, pneumonia is:

  1. Focal - inflammatory process a small area, the defeat of several alveoli
  2. Segmental - inflammation does not extend beyond a single pulmonary segment
  3. Lobar - affected a whole lobe of the lung
  4. Drain - initially arisen small inflammatory foci expand and merge into larger
  5. Croup - inflammatory foci in both lungs.

The course of any pneumonia goes through several stages:

  • tide (red hepatization) - lasts up to 2 days, exudation in the alveoli leads to an increase in symptoms of inflammation;
  • hepatization (gray hepatization) - an increase in the lung tissue of inflammatory exudate and the beginning of the struggle of leukocytes with the pathogen, the period lasts 5-10 days;
  • stage of resolution - the gradual resorption of inflammatory fluid in the lungs, the restoration of respiratory function and the elimination of symptoms occurs on day 7-11.

Read more about the symptoms and treatment of pneumonia in adults.

Classic picture of pneumonia:

  • intoxication - weakness, sweating, headaches, lack of appetite, abdominal pain, diarrhea;
  • temperature increase - at atypical up to 37.5 ºС, at bacterial - up to high numbers, temperature jumps within 1.5 ºС are often observed;
  • shortness of breath - from the first days of the disease;
  • cough - from 3-4 days, first dry, and then with sputum discharge (often rusty), an attempt to take a deep breath leads to a coughing fit;
  • pain in the chest - worse on inhaling and coughing, has exact localization, more intense when bending on the affected side;
  • external signs - pallor of the skin, cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle, often herpes on the lips.

A characteristic sign of pneumonia is the ineffectiveness of antipyretics. Often in adults, pneumonia occurs without coughing.

This development is observed with a weak immunity, prolonged inflammatory process due to inadequate antibiotic therapy, with regular suppression of the cough reflex.

Characteristic symptoms of certain types of pneumonia

  • Focal - symptoms of pneumonia in adults with limited inflammation of a small area often develop without fever.
  • Streptococcal / staphylococcal - coughing is not so debilitating. Expectorants give a good effect.
  • Bacterial - persistent hyperthermia up to 41ºС for more than 3 days.
  • Viral - periods of hyperthermia up to 38 ° C are replaced by normal temperature.
  • Atypical - rhinitis, attacks of dry cough more often at night / in the morning, an increase in axillary lymph nodes, nasal bleeding.

Features of pneumonia and its characteristic symptoms in children

Signs of pneumonia in a child photo

Signs of pneumonia in a child photo

Symptoms of pneumonia in children, especially up to a year, are somewhat different from the clinical picture of pneumonia in an adult. Distinctive features of children's pneumonia:

  • often develops against the background of colds - a sharp deterioration in the condition of the baby 2-3 days after the apparent recovery;
  • shortness of breath comes to the fore - up to 50-60 per minute in infants up to one year old and up to 40 per minute up to 5 years old;
  • intercostal and spacing and supraclavicular region;
  • the wings of the nose swell up, sometimes a thickening of the nasolabial triangle, pronounced cyanosis;
  • pronounced abdominal syndrome - flatulence, pain, diarrhea;
  • severe hyperthermia and normal temperature parameters in frequently ill children;
  • adynamia, clouding of consciousness.

The smaller the baby, the less pronounced the characteristic signs of pneumonia. "Grunting breath," immobility and swollen nose of the nose are dangerous signs that require urgent medical consultation.

Read more about the symptoms and treatment of pneumonia in children.

Complications of pneumonia

  • Pleurisy.
  • Acute respiratory failure.
  • Pulmonary edema.
  • Formation of pulmonary abscess.
  • Infectious and toxic shock.
  • Myocarditis, meningitis.

Diagnosis of pneumonia

Diagnosis of pneumonia

  1. Auscultation of the lungs - weak breathing in the initial phase of pneumonia, wheezing in the stage of gray hepatitis.
  2. X-ray - fixing the boundaries of inflammation, re-conducting it helps to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
  3. Sputum analysis (Gram stain) - identification of the pathogen.
  4. Blood test - leukocytosis, high ESR.

Medical tactic

Treatment depending on the type of pneumonia includes:

  • antibiotic therapy or antiviral drugs (while maintaining a high temperature for 3 days of treatment with antibiotics, replace the drug);
  • expectorants;
  • detoxification - in / in infusion;
  • with infectious shock - corticosteroids;
  • immunostimulants;
  • in severe cases - bronchoscopy, mechanical ventilation.

Therapeutic tactics are determined individually, carried out with the mandatory X-ray monitoring and fixation of blood parameters. Even after a course of effective treatment, mild symptoms (cough, shortness of breath) persist for some time.

Interesting

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