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Explanation of analyzes

Symptoms of worms in humans - how to know if there are worms?

The disease caused by the lower worms (worms or helminths are equivalent terms) is called helminthiasis. In the classification of infectious diseases, it refers to a group of parasitic infestations.

It is based on the penetration into the human body of eggs (larvae) of a parasitic worm. In the future they develop into multicellular mature individuals, which live at the expense of the host organism. However, they do not do him any good. This parasitism, as a biological phenomenon, differs from symbiosis.

Human parasitic diseases are unique, because The pathogen of the disease rarely contacts its "victim" directly. This means that for the full development of some worms it is necessary to go through a whole chain of transformations - to get into the organism of the intermediate host or into the external environment with suitable conditions.

Symptoms of worms in humans

Symptoms of worms in humans

Therefore, the distribution of helminthiases is associated, mainly, with natural and climatic factors. The social and economic well-being and awareness of the population on the spread of infestations have a great impact on the possibility of infection.

This explains the large occurrence of helminthiases in tropical countries with a low standard of living and, correspondingly, a low level of sanitary and hygienic culture.

In Russia, helminthiosis is diagnosed in 1% of people. This is a fairly low epidemiological level.


How can you get infected with worms?

There are two main ways of infection - through the mouth and through the skin.

1. Through the mouth (orally) a person can get either eggs of the parasite or its larvae.

The source of eggs of any species of helminths is the excrement of a sick individual. It can be a person or an animal. Further, with feces, the eggs of the worms fall either into the ground / water, or to the animal's hair or underwear, the hands of the sick person. In the latter case, favorable conditions are created for spreading parasites through household items.

The vitality of eggs of different helminths is quite high. As a rule, they have a hard shell and can long remain capable of further development when ingested into the host's body. This is the hidden danger of parasitic infections.

In general, the worm larvae enter the human body with contaminated products, such as meat or fish. In this case, the person is not the final, but an additional or intermediate "point".

Often this becomes a dead end in the further development of the helminth, since people do not enter the food chain of any biological species, unlike animals that eat each other.

In the process of vital activity of the human body, nothing is released into the environment, except feces. In his body, the larva parasitizes, but does not become an adult. However, "problems" in organs and tissues are created.

How can you get worms?

Non-compliance with hygiene is the first and last step towards infecting worms

Thus, "through the mouth" you can get an infection from any object that could have contact with the feces of the patient - soil, water, wool, hands. Also, this path is possible when eating contaminated meat or fish, which was an intermediate host. So the main chains of infection look:

  • soil - hands - mouth;
  • soil - vegetables, herbs, berries - mouth;
  • water-mouth, if drinking raw water from an open and unknown source is carried out, while reservoirs near the pasture are especially dangerous;
  • water for irrigation - vegetables, greens - mouth;
  • the animal's hair-hands-mouth;
  • the patient's hands - household items, underwear - hands of a healthy - mouth;
  • infected meat (pork, beef, game), fish (carp) - mouth;

2. Infection through the skin occurs on contact:

  • With contaminated soil.

There are some types of helminths, the eggs of which are actively introduced into the epidermis, due to special adaptations (for example, strongyloidiasis).

  • With water from an open reservoir in which some stage of the parasite lives.

This is possible with bathing, washing clothes without gloves, religious rituals (especially in hot countries), when working in water without clothes and shoes, especially in epidemiologically disadvantaged areas.

Therefore, tourists who go to exotic countries, in advance should ask what helminthiases there are common.

In what organs can live worms?

In what organs may live worms

The habitat of worms in the human body is very diverse. Different species of helminths exhibit tropism (localization preferences), determined by the existence of favorable conditions for existence. The following organs are most susceptible to parasitic worms:

1. Intestine - a favorite place for the location of helminths, because the contents of the gastrointestinal tract is the source of nutrition for the parasites. They can be localized in all departments. Often larvae and adult forms are the cause of appendicitis (they are found in the remote appendix).

2. Liver and gallbladder. The liver receives blood from the intestine through the portal vein system. Therefore, those parasites that came with food and absorbed into the blood, easily penetrate the liver.

In the process of the formation of bile, it enters the gallbladder, and then into the duodenum. A similar path can be made by some helminths, passing through certain stages of development. A similar situation is observed with ascariasis.

3. The lungs. The system of the small circle of blood circulation closes in the lungs. Worms that enter the bloodstream can settle in the pulmonary capillaries, leading to a pathological change (pulmonary stage of ascariasis).

4. The brain. Worms can penetrate the hemato-encephalic barrier (a special formation that delimits the total blood flow and nervous tissue).

5. Muscles of the body - especially often afflicted with diphylopothyroidism.

6. Myocardium. The larvae do not live there, but die and secrete a toxin, leading to the development of inflammation - myocarditis.

How do you know if there are worms in a person?

A greater probability of occurrence of helminthiases exists in certain groups of the population, as well as members of their families. Such people need to undergo regular checks to identify / exclude parasites from them. To find out whether there are worms in a person you can use the tests (about them below) or on the characteristic symptomatic manifestations.

In groups at risk:

  • Children - this is due to imperfect immunity, frequent contact with the earth. In some cases, there may be a geofagy - eating the ground;
  • Children especially often come into contact with animals and rarely wash their hands. they have not yet developed sanitary and hygienic skills;
  • Residents of the village who have frequent contact with the earth, engaged in collecting wild berries in the forest;
  • Hunters, fishermen who eat wild meat, fish and cut carcasses;
  • Tanners that process wild animal skins (this may be the way the contact is made);
  • Veterinarians who directly work with infected animals;
  • Laboratory assistants investigating feces that may contain helminths;
  • Pastoralists working with animals, it is also possible to contaminate pastures with human feces;
  • Shepherds, pastoral cattlemen, working with cattle and dogs;
  • Sex minorities - some parasites can be transmitted during homosexual intercourse (nematodes causing strongyloidiasis);
  • HIV-infected with depressed immune system;
  • lovers of raw fish, which can be infected with filaria or other helminths;
  • travelers to countries with a hot climate, characterized by epidemiological inferiority.

Symptoms of worms in humans, photo

Symptoms of worms in humans

nausea, abdominal pain - symptoms of chronic infection with worms, photo

To suspect worms in humans, you can by some symptoms and clinical signs. But almost always the disease flows secretly or masks for other diseases. This is the reason for the belated diagnosis.

The appearance of any suspicious symptoms requires the exclusion of helminthiosis. The simplest thing that can be recommended in this situation is three times to hand over the feces for revealing the eggs of worms.

Signs that are characteristic of the acute stage appear after the incubation period. It comes immediately after infection. Usually lasts for several days or weeks. But there are infections with a long incubation period, for example, filariasis (up to 18 months).

Signs of the acute stage manifest as an allergic reaction to a foreign antigen. This leads to such symptoms - fever, itching, swelling, dry cough, swollen lymph nodes and liver.

But they are nonspecific and can occur in many diseases, not only with helminthiasis. In the blood at this time, the level of eosinophils rises, reflecting the allergic mood of the body.

In the chronic stage, asthenic (weakness, lethargy) and pain syndrome develops, and digestive disorders also develop. These are common signs of worms in humans. Symptoms that should be alarmed are represented by the following groups:

  • nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain (in different departments), heaviness in the liver, deterioration of appetite - digestive disorders not associated with a specific gastrointestinal disease (peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, etc.);
  • increased body temperature in the absence of acute respiratory disease (colds);
  • itching of the skin and mucous membranes, especially itching in the anus at night, when the worms creep out to get oxygen;
  • rapidly increasing edema on the face, neck (with trichinosis their transition to the limbs indicates a poor prognosis);
  • headaches that can not be treated with analgesics;
  • muscle pain, symptoms are not stopped by standard therapy;
  • decrease in body weight, lag of children in growth and development (is a consequence of impaired intestinal absorption);
  • an allergic rash with itching;
  • subcutaneous formations - allergic granulomas (can be displaced);
  • permanent fatigue, asthenia, poor sleep;
  • creaking teeth during sleep (bruxism);
  • prolonged cough;
  • heart rhythm disorder;
  • the appearance of a drop of blood at the end of urination (especially characteristic of schistosomiasis);

With the development of adult individuals of ribbon worms in humans, symptoms that can help to suspect parasites are marked B12-deficiency anemia and intestinal obstruction. Especially often it is detected with massive infection with ascarids.

Picture of symptoms of infection with nematode larvae

Picture of symptoms of infection with nematode larvae

A distinctive feature is the dermal form of helminthiosis when infecting migratory nematode larvae. In this case, after some time after contact with the soil, a linear inflammation appears on the skin, spreading as the larva moves in the subcutaneous fat layer (it increases by 2 cm per day).

The movements have the appearance of crimped bands, bright on one side (closer to the larva) and paler on the other, reaching a length of 30 cm. When infected with trematodes (schistosomiasis), itching is characteristic after bathing ("bather itch"), followed by the development of small bubbles on The place of introduction of the larvae, which are covered with crust after a few days.

Analyzes and diagnostics

The basis of the diagnosis is the detection of eggs, larvae or parts of the parasite in the feces (Parasep system) using microscopy. Sometimes, in difficult cases, the analysis takes bile, muscle tissue and blood for a similar study.

More expensive, but not always more specific, analyzes are:

  • serological examination - determination of antibodies to certain parasites in the blood;
  • PCR - detection of fragments of RNA or DNA of parasitic worms.

An increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood is a sign of an allergic reaction of the organism, which almost always accompanies the appearance of worms. The detection of this symptom in the general clinical analysis of the blood is an indication for a detailed examination for the presence of worms.

How to get rid of worms to a person?

How to get rid of worms to a person?

With laboratory confirmation of worms in humans, treatment is a pill that destroys adult individuals and larvae of parasites. The usual course of admission lasts from 5 to 10 days, but longer therapy may be required.

High effectiveness is demonstrated by such anthelmintic drugs as:

  • Nemosol;
  • Mebendazole;
  • Combatin (Pirantel);
  • Medamin;
  • Vermox;
  • Thiabendazole.

In addition, antiallergic (antihistamine) drugs, vitamins (ascorutin, vit. C) and calcium preparations are taken. To restore intestinal microflora, especially in childhood, requires eubiotics (living beneficial bacteria) in combination with probiotics (the environment for their life).

After the course of treating a person with antiparasitic drugs (but not during it!), Enterosorbents, adaptogens, immunity stimulants are prescribed.

It is important to consider that the appointment of hormones (dexamethasone, prednisolone, etc.) in connection with the treatment of allergies, without proper diagnosis of helminthiosis (which is the cause of an allergic reaction), can lead to aggravation of the latter. This is due to the suppression of the immune system.

Prevention of infection with worms

Prevention of infection with worms Personal prophylaxis consists in observing the rules of hygiene:

  • washing hands after street, garden, communication with animals;
  • washing vegetables, fruits with water from a tested and epidemiologically safe source;
  • washing wild berries.

When cooking, take into account:

  • consumption of meat and fish after careful heat treatment (cooking for at least 2 hours);
  • purchase of meat, fish past veterinary control.

When in contact with water, in hazardous areas, the use of clothing, shoes and gloves is necessary. Avoid swimming in water with visible pollution.

After traveling to tropical countries, a check is shown for the presence of parasites in the human body.


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