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Symptomatic arterial hypertension: a cunning disease treatable

Symptomatic arterial hypertension is a common disease that develops on the background of the disruption of the work of some organs or systems (heart, kidney, aorta). About 15% of all cases of hypertension are secondary. To normalize pressure, it is initially necessary to eliminate the root cause of the pathological condition.

Content

Description of the disease

Blood pressure is controlled by several organs at once - the heart, aorta, kidneys. Hypertension is often the first manifestation of certain diseases of the cardiovascular system. It is no coincidence that pathology is called symptomatic or secondary. Statistics indicate that more than 50 diagnoses are established due to arterial hypertension.

Pressure measurement

High blood pressure may be a sign of symptomatic hypertension.

Depending on the disease that provoked an increase in pressure, the manifestations of hypertension can be different. In some cases, immediate medical attention is required.

According to the origin, several types of symptomatic hypertension are distinguished:

  1. Renal, or nephrogenic. Statistics indicate that about 80% of the cases of secondary pressure rises fall on this type. Pathology develops due to damage to the kidneys or arteries that feed the organ. Hypertension can be formed due to congenital or acquired renal failure.
  2. Endocrine. Increased pressure is observed against the disruption of the functioning of the endocrine glands.
  3. Neurogenic. The pathological condition develops due to failure of the central nervous system.
  4. Hemodynamic. The pressure rises due to dysfunction of the heart and large arteries.
  5. Drug. The disease is formed by taking certain medications.

Most often, secondary hypertension develops due to a narrowing of the renal artery or its branches. In this case, the lumen of the vessel is reduced by 75% from the original size. Pathology is called renovascular or renovascular hypertension.

There are various forms of the disease according to the severity of its course:

  1. Transient hypertension. This is the initial degree of development of the pathological process. Increased blood pressure is observed periodically.
  2. Labile hypertension. No persistent increase in pressure occurs, however, it is no longer possible to normalize the patient’s condition without the use of medications.
  3. Stable hypertension. There is a steady increase in blood pressure.
  4. Malignant hypertension. The pathology forms suddenly, the pressure rises rapidly. There is a risk of complications for the heart, aorta, brain, fundus.

In order not to miss a dangerous disease, it is recommended to consult a therapist at the first sign of hypertension.

Disease factors

Nephrogenic hypertension can form when the renal artery narrows against the background of atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta. At the same time, plaques and blood clots are formed that interfere with the normal blood supply to the organ. In addition, the artery can be compressed due to the inflammatory process (for example, with pyelonephritis), trauma (when a hematoma is formed), a benign or malignant tumor.

In some cases, symptomatic arterial hypertension is observed against the background of congenital dysplasia (abnormal development) of the renal artery.

Ultrasound of the kidneys

Pathology of the kidney can lead to the development of secondary hypertension

Endocrine hypertension can form when:

  • pheochromocytoma. The patient produces a tumor of the internal substance of the adrenal glands. As a rule, severe hypertension develops, accompanied by headache and increased sweating;
  • Itsenko - Cushing syndrome. Pathology is formed due to excessive production of glucocorticoid hormones by the adrenal cortex;
  • Conn's syndrome. A painful condition develops on the background of adrenal adenoma. The body begins to produce a large amount of hormone that regulates the work of the kidneys. A characteristic symptom of pathology is high blood pressure, numbness of certain parts of the body.

Another cause of secondary hypertension in women is menopause. The pressure rises against the background of the extinction of reproductive function.

Hemodynamic hypertension most often develops on the background of heart failure. Pathology can be either congenital or acquired.

Drug hypertension, as a rule, is formed due to vascular spasm or increased blood viscosity during the administration of certain drugs. Often, the pressure increases after taking medications, which include substances such as phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine.

In 5% of cases, secondary hypertension develops in women taking oral contraceptives.

A persistent increase in neurogenic pressure can occur in infectious diseases of the brain (meningitis, encephalitis), traumatic brain injuries, and tumors.

Symptomatology

The clinical picture may differ depending on the disease, which provoked high blood pressure. So, at the initial stage of renal hypertension, the patient may feel completely normal, well-being and performance remain. As the pathological process develops, the patient begins to complain of nagging pain in the lower back.

With endocrine hypertension, the patient almost always has the following symptoms:

  • headaches;
  • visual impairment;
  • excessive sweating;
  • general weakness;
  • nausea.
Woman squeezes her forehead

Headache is one of the signs of high blood pressure.

In addition to the described signs, the following symptoms may be observed with hemodynamic hypertension:

  • heartache;
  • numbness of the limbs;
  • "Flies" in the eyes;
  • noise in ears.

When neurogenic hypertension is often marked convulsive seizures, increased salivation.

It is important to know the difference between secondary hypertension and primary hypertension. The main signs of symptomatic disease include:

  • the presence of panic attacks;
  • rapid progression of pathology;
  • age (up to 20 years or over 60 years);
  • blood pressure, poorly normalized when using traditional medicines.

Diagnosis of the disease

A specialist may establish a preliminary diagnosis at the first examination after examining the patient’s complaints. Additionally, daily blood pressure monitoring is carried out using an automatic tonometer. To undergo a complete examination, a person will have to go to the hospital.

The doctor measures the patient's pressure

The specialist will be able to make a preliminary diagnosis on the first inspection.

To identify the root cause of the disease allows a number of techniques:

  1. Electrocardiogram. The study provides an opportunity to find out how well the cardiovascular system functions.
  2. Ultrasound of the kidneys. A specialist examines the condition of an organ. Additionally, a general urinalysis can be prescribed.
  3. Blood chemistry. With it, it is possible to identify the state of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
  4. MRI The technique makes it possible to find changes in the work of the adrenal glands, the brain.
  5. Blood test for hormones. The study allows to detect pathology of the thyroid gland and adrenal glands.
  6. Angiography. Contrast x-ray examination allows to identify the narrowing of the renal vessels.

Differential diagnostics, which allows to determine how the disease triggered an increase in blood pressure, is of great importance. Only after having learned the root cause of the pathology, the specialist can prescribe the appropriate treatment. Additionally, you may need to consult a cardiologist, endocrinologist, urologist, neurologist, etc.

Treatment

Therapy for symptomatic hypertension is to eliminate the disease that causes an increase in blood pressure. Treatment may include several groups of drugs:

  1. Beta blockers. Drugs in this category normalize blood pressure. A doctor can be appointed means Bisoprolol, Anaprilin.
  2. Diuretics. Medicines from this group allow you to remove excess fluid from the body along with urine. Thanks to this action, it is possible to reduce the swelling of tissues, to put in order the pressure. Popular tool Veroshpiron.
  3. ACE inhibitors. Drugs in this category enhance the action of diuretics. Benazepril, Pizinopril, Fosinopril, etc. may be prescribed by the therapist.
  4. Sartans. Medicines from this group also contribute to lowering blood pressure. Cardosal, Ibertan, Renicard, etc. may be used.

Additionally, medications can be prescribed to normalize hormonal background, eliminate infection, and treat cardiovascular pathologies. Therapy is selected individually in each case.

Symptomatic hypertension drugs - photo gallery

Diet

Great importance with high blood pressure has proper nutrition. It is important not only to select useful products, but also to draw up an appropriate regime. In no case should the stomach be overloaded. Products from the following list are recommended to be minimized:

  1. Salt. Sodium retains fluid in the body, which leads to a further increase in pressure.
  2. Strong tea or coffee. These drinks provoke a spasm of blood vessels, the load on the heart increases. For the same reason, it is recommended to give up alcohol.
  3. Foods high in animal fats. These include sausages, butter.
  4. Sugar. This product is included in the group of quickly digestible carbohydrates, provoking weight gain.
Girl eating hot dog

Improper diet is one of the causes of serious health problems.

The daily ration should be based on the following products:

  • fresh vegetables and fruits;
  • dishes with a high content of magnesium and potassium (porridges, dried apricots, sauerkraut or stewed cabbage);
  • fish;
  • low-fat dairy products.

People who have had to face hypertension, absolutely can not starve. In this case, the power should be fractional. It is recommended to eat in small portions 5-6 times a day. The last meal is two hours before bedtime.

Smoking is a dangerous habit. Nicotine provokes vasoconstriction, as does alcohol. Hypertension is exacerbated.

Useful products with increased pressure - photo gallery

Physiotherapy

In combination with traditional medical treatment, the following physiotherapeutic methods can be applied:

  1. Healing baths. Water contributes to the relaxation of blood vessels and lower blood pressure.
  2. Mud therapy This therapy allows you to relieve inflammation, reduce tissue swelling.
  3. Galvanization. The method involves the impact on the patient's body constant electric current. Such treatment shows good results in neurogenic hypertension.
The girl takes a therapeutic bath

Healing baths help normalize blood pressure

Success in the treatment of symptomatic hypertension can be achieved through therapeutic exercises. Walking is also helpful. Patients indicated sanatorium treatment.

Video: Exercises to lower blood pressure

Surgical intervention

Some pathological changes in the body, provoking a secondary increase in blood pressure, can be eliminated only through surgical intervention. Thus, the operation is performed with adrenal tumors, narrowing of the aortic lumen, hematomas of the brain.

Doctors perform an operation

Some pathological changes that cause an increase in pressure can only be eliminated through surgery.

Be sure to intervene with vascular hypertension. In private clinics, endovascular surgery can be performed to eliminate the defect without incision. The specialist inserts the instruments through small punctures in the skin and controls the process with x-ray equipment. Expansion of the narrowed lumen of the renal artery is carried out by inserting a tubular balloon catheter into the vessel.

Surgical intervention is performed under local anesthesia. A huge advantage is the minimal risk of complications. After a few weeks the patient can lead a full life.

In case of critical narrowing of the renal artery, a cardinal operation can be performed - nephrectomy. During surgery, part of the kidney is removed, and in the most advanced cases, the entire organ is removed. The operation can be performed open (through an incision) or endoscopically. The second option is less traumatic.

After any surgery associated with hypertension, the patient enters the intensive care unit. For several days, the doctor monitors the work of the patient’s cardiovascular system. As a rule, the patient can be discharged home on the sixth - seventh day after surgery.

ethnoscience

In combination with traditional treatment, traditional medicine helps to normalize blood pressure. However, the use of any of them should be discussed with your doctor.

Tincture of red pine cones

Reviews show that already on the third day of taking the medication there is a persistent decrease in blood pressure. It is necessary to prepare the tincture of the cones collected in the middle of summer. Raw materials must be well washed and filled into a quart jar, pour vodka. Infusing a remedy in a dark cool place is necessary for a month. If the tincture is prepared correctly, it will have a rich red color.

The finished product should be filtered and taken a teaspoon three times a day, half an hour before meals.

Garlic

The product is a universal drug. It can be included in the daily diet. Infusion will be useful. Two cloves of garlic must be grated on a fine grater and pour a glass of boiling water. After 12 hours, garlic water to drink and prepare a new infusion.

Raw sunflower seeds

It is recommended to pour 400 g of raw, well-washed sunflower seeds into an enamel saucepan, pour a liter of water and cook over low heat for about 2 hours. Then the broth should be cooled and filtered. A glass of medicine must be drunk in small sips throughout the day.

Components of traditional medicine to help with hypertension - photo gallery

The prognosis of treatment and prevention

With timely detection of the pathology that provoked an increase in blood pressure, the prognosis of treatment is usually favorable. Thanks to adequate medical therapy, and in some cases, surgery, it is possible to completely get rid of unpleasant symptoms.

The problem is that many are in no hurry to go to the therapist, taking antihypertensive drugs on the advice of friends. At the same time the disease is aggravated. Every day increases the risk of dangerous complications:

  • dizziness, which interferes with a full-fledged lifestyle;
  • quick fatigue;
  • memory loss;
  • constant tinnitus.

With increased pressure, the heart is working with a huge load, the body wears out faster. The likelihood of developing heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke increases.

Healthy family

Healthy lifestyle is the key to longevity

To prevent an unpleasant disease, simple preventive measures will help:

  • proper nutrition;
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • healthy sleep;
  • regular walks in the fresh air;
  • positive emotions;
  • timely appeal to a specialist for any health problems.

Symptomatic arterial hypertension is a dangerous disease. However, it should be remembered that with timely treatment for medical care will be able to fully restore health.

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