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Syphilis: the first signs of infection, methods of diagnosis and treatment

STDs Syphilis belongs to the group of infectious diseases with predominantly sexual transmission. It is characterized by a chronic undulating course with a gradual lesion of all organs and systems.

Classical syphilis includes 4 periods: incubation (3-6 weeks), primary syphilis (6-7 weeks), secondary forms of the disease (2-4 years), tertiary period (many years after infection).

Content

Signs and symptoms of syphilis

The disease is caused by pale treponema - a spiral-shaped microbe, capable of active movement and well preserved in a moist external environment at room temperature.

Signs and symptoms of syphilis

The source of infection is a person who has symptoms of syphilis of any stage, and all the biological fluids of a patient - saliva, blood, urine, semen - are dangerous.

Sexual contact with a sick partner is considered the most frequent way of infecting women, however, infection is possible when kissing, sharing hygiene items, dishes and toiletries, and smoking a single cigarette or hookah together.

A sick woman can infect her child intrauterinely or while caring for him while breastfeeding.

The first signs of syphilis infection

First signs of syphilis

First signs of syphilis

When women become infected with syphilis, the first signs appear in the place where treponema was introduced into the body: a hard head appears on the walls of the vagina, cervix, nipples, mouth or rectum, which looks like a dense, round ulcerous defect of the skin.

Shancr does not cause any subjective discomfort (no pain, burning or soaking). Vaginal discharge in women with syphilis can become thicker, more painful, with the appearance of an unpleasant smell.

Sometimes the lymph nodes may increase, the body temperature may rise slightly, and general malaise may appear.

All of these symptoms go away without treatment, but this cannot be considered recovery, it is the transition of the disease from the primary to the next stage.

Symptoms of secondary syphilis

The secondary period of the disease is characterized by the cyclic appearance of syphilide (various eruptions in the form of spots, nodules, pustules) on the skin throughout the body and an increase in lymph nodes. The rash lasts for several weeks, then spontaneously goes away.

Episodes of lesions for several years alternate with asymptomatic stage.

A fresh process is manifested by a bright, small, symmetrical, copious rash without peeling. When recurrent syphilides are darker, larger, asymmetrical, prone to merge with the formation of patterns on the skin, with signs of flaking along the edges.

Frequent signs of the 2nd stage - the appearance of syphilis of pigment in the form of "necklace of Venus", after the disappearance of which there are white round spots. Rashes in secondary syphilis contain a large number of active treponema, therefore, during this period, patients are very contagious.

Manifestations of tertiary syphilis

Symptoms of secondary syphilis

At about 4 years of infection, signs of tertiary syphilis develop in 40% of cases.

For this stage, the characteristic symptoms are syphilitic tubercles and nodes (gumma), which are located in the deeper layers of the skin and internal organs.

When it collapses, the gumma deform the tissues, form poorly healing ulcers and large stellate scars, worsening the work of the organs.

Tertiary syphilides contain little treponema, so these patients are little contagious to others.

Disease complications

Syphilitic infection without treatment has a perennial course and leads to destructive processes in various organs.

Neurosyphilis ends with paresis and paralysis, partial or complete loss of vision, damage to the membranes of the brain with the development of meningitis.

When the joints are damaged, a violation of the motor function of the limbs occurs. Syphilides can be formed on all major vital internal organs, leading to death.

Diagnosis of syphilis

To conduct a test for syphilis, it is necessary to consult a doctor - gynecologists and dermatovenerologists know well how syphilis is manifested on the genitals, therefore, diagnosis can often be made at the clinical examination stage.

A scraping is taken from suspicious skin elements, which is then examined under a microscope in a dark field and sown on special media to determine the sensitivity of the microbe to antibiotics.

считается метод ПЦР , позволяющий выявить заболевание на любых стадиях, но он доступен далеко не во всех лечебных учреждениях. The most modern method of diagnosis is the PCR method , which allows to detect the disease at any stages, but it is not available in all medical institutions.

Therefore, the first place in the mass diagnosis of syphilis belongs to the detection in the blood of antibodies to syphilis (Wasserman reaction - RW), which becomes positive at 3-4 weeks from the onset of the disease.

Syphilis in pregnant women

For the timely detection of syphilis in pregnant women, triple blood screening for RW is envisaged: at 8-12, 30, and 38-40 weeks. Infection at any stage of pregnancy is not considered an indication for termination, but when an infection is detected, it is necessary to start treatment as soon as possible.

The course of antibiotic therapy for primary forms of syphilis in 1-2 trimester allows you to completely prevent the infection of the child.

The presence of a pregnant tertiary form or infection in the last trimester cannot guarantee the safety of the fetus: even after successful treatment, such children should be under medical supervision in the first years of life for timely detection of various manifestations of the congenital form of the disease.

Preparations for the treatment of syphilis in pregnant women cannot be considered completely harmless, but they are selected on the basis of the lowest toxicity to the fetus (recommended cephalosporins and macrolides).

Without treatment, only 1 in 10 children from mothers with syphilis will be relatively healthy. The rest after the fourth month of intrauterine development, symptoms of infection appear: changes occur in the liver, kidneys, bone system, mucous membranes.

Severe lesions of the internal organs lead to fetal non-viability, and this pregnancy ends with a late miscarriage or stillbirth.

Can I give birth after syphilis?

Is it possible to give birth after syphilis

Each specific situation should be considered separately, taking into account the form of the disease, the severity of the treatment, the duration of the process.

Ideally, a woman should come to the gynecologist at the conception stage so that the doctor assesses all the features of the body and the illness and decides whether the patient can give birth to a healthy child after syphilis.

Statistics show that women who were successfully treated before pregnancy from primary and secondary syphilis, give birth to completely healthy children.

After treatment, tertiary syphilis should take several years to conceive, while monitoring the state of health is necessary to prevent reactivation of the infection.

If you get good results within 3-4 years, doctors usually give birth to pregnancy, because there is no risk of infection of the fetus.

Treatment of syphilis in women and men

Early periods of the disease can be treated on an outpatient basis - for 1 month, patients receive bicillin injections (this is a penicillin antibiotic with a long-term effect) several times a week.

In stationary conditions, the standard treatment for syphilis (primary and secondary forms) includes intramuscular injections of penicillin 6 r / day for 14-28 days in combination with bicillin, antihistamine drugs.

In the presence of local elements, treatment with antiseptic solutions is shown.

In late or latent forms of the disease, preparation is first carried out using bismuth preparations (biiyoquinol) for 10-14 days, then penicillin therapy is prescribed for them (at least 28 days) and preparations to maintain the normal function of the internal organs affected by treponema pallidum (hepatoprotectors, cardiotonics nootropics).

The course of treatment of syphilis at any stage ends with the appointment of immunostimulants (retarpen, aloe, extensillin, splenin) to increase the body's own defenses.

After treatment, patients are under the supervision of doctors from 3-6 months. (with primary syphilis) up to three years (with complicated forms).

Modern qualified therapy of syphilis makes in most cases the prognosis for this disease is very favorable, so you should not engage in self-treatment and hesitate to consult a doctor for an examination for this disease.

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