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Seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp and face, causes and treatment

Seborrheic dermatitis can appear regardless of age and is more commonly diagnosed in men. The basis of the pathology is inflammation of the skin in areas rich in the sebaceous glands.

The disease is chronic and prone to exacerbations during the off-season (autumn and spring). The types of seborrheic dermatitis, causes and treatment of the disease are described below.

Content

What is this disease?

Other names of pathology - seborrheic eczema, seborrhea. The inflammatory process often affects the back, face, chest, scalp - areas richly supplied with sebaceous glands.

In most patients, sebum production is increased, and this is a favorable condition for the reproduction of pathogenic microflora.

The main provocateur of inflammation is the fungus Pityrosporum ovale, which is present on the skin of most people in an inactive state - in the form of spores.

Excessive sebaceous secretions and reduced immunity provoke the reproduction of this microorganism. To cure seborrheic dermatitis and reduce the risk of exacerbations, it is important to seek help from a dermatologist, who will prescribe an effective therapy after finding out the causes of the disease, as soon as possible.

Causes of seborrheic dermatitis

Seborrheic dermatitis on the face

Seborrheic dermatitis on the face (photo 1)

Factors affecting the appearance of seborrheic inflammations on the skin are external and internal. All of them directly or indirectly lead to increased production of sebum, or sebum.

себорейного дерматита являются: The internal causes of seborrheic dermatitis are:

  • pathology of the nervous system;
  • Parkinson's disease;
  • endocrine disorders;
  • epilepsy;
  • genetic predisposition;
  • immune diseases, including AIDS.

: External factors :

  • unbalanced nutrition;
  • lack of zinc and vitamin PP;
  • increased sweating (hyperhidrosis);
  • frequent stress, mental turmoil;
  • exposure to low temperatures;
  • use soap, shampoos and household chemicals with an alkaline environment.

In most cases, it is possible to get rid of the manifestations of seborrhea, completely eliminating the cause of the appearance of inflammation.

Types of illness

Seborrheic eczema is divided into three types:

  1. Oily - is thick and liquid. The former is characterized by the appearance of acne and acne, most often among young men under the age of 21, and the second is common among girls in adolescence and localized on the face and scalp with the separation of fluid secretions.
  2. Dry - develops with a decrease in sebaceous secretion, often before puberty. The skin dries out, cracks appear on it.
  3. Mixed - this form is characterized by a combination of dry and fatty inflamed areas at any age, and mostly in men.

The severity and course of the disease also distinguish:

  • Seborrheic eczematid is a mild form with slight flaking and inflammation on the face, behind the ears and head.
  • Perinasal erythema - yellowish flaky spots on the wings of the nose and nasolabial folds.
  • Spotted seborrheic dermatitis is a pronounced inflammatory process with frequent and prolonged exacerbations.
  • Asbestosa versicolor is the most complex form of seborrhea in the scalp, in which the skin is covered with dense white plaques.

Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis

By localization, seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp and face is more common.

Symptoms on the face, photo

Seborrheic dermatitis on the eyebrows and face (photo 2)

Seborrheic dermatitis on the eyebrows and face (photo 2)

Men and people with endocrine and immune disorders are prone to the appearance of lesions on the face. The skin at the same time resembles an orange peel due to enlarged pores, some areas noticeably shine and with time may acquire a grayish color.

Blackheads, pink clearly defined papules and black dots appear. Seborrhea on the face is not only oily, but also dry.

Seborrhea on the face, photo 5

Seborrhea on the face, photo 5

Untimely treatment of seborrheic dermatitis on the face is fraught with the addition of a secondary infection, due to which local inflammation in the form of boils or large painful acne, pyoderma can appear on the skin.

Flaking, soreness and itching are added to the inflammatory process.

Characteristic areas of seborrhea on the face are nasolabial folds, cheekbones, nose wings, eyebrows, forehead, eyebrows. If the eyelid skin is affected, then the risk of conjunctivitis and blepharitis is high.

Symptoms on the head, photo

The initial stage of seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp, photo 3

The initial stage of seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp, photo 3

Seborrhea on the scalp is initially dry and manifested by dandruff. In the future, there are reddening of individual areas, itching and discomfort. Suppurations and wounds occur when combing the skin.

The hair starts to get salted quickly, and you have to wash your head more often than usual. Then plaques of a yellowish or milky shade appear, while scraping, the skin beneath them has a red color.

The development of seborrhea on the head, photo 4

The development of seborrhea on the head, photo 4

The development of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp continues with hair loss and focal alopecia (alopecia). As a result of successful treatment, hair in these areas is restored.

Symptoms of seborrhea exacerbated, if you do not stick to a diet, abuse the sharp, sweet and spicy dishes, alcohol.

Diagnostics

The basis for the diagnosis are the visible signs and complaints of the patient. Dermatoscopy reveals the presence of hyperkeratosis (keratinization of the skin), irritation, dandruff, the degree of inflammation and the amount of sebum secreted.

Specifying methods in the diagnosis of seborrheic dermatitis:

  • blood test;
  • spectral study of hair;
  • study of hormonal levels.

They are necessary to exclude other fungal skin pathologies and atopic dermatitis.

Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis on the face

Seborrheic dermatitis is treated by a dermatologist, but depending on the factors of the disease, the help of a gynecologist, an endocrinologist, a dietician, and other specialists may be required.

Treatment of seborrheic lesions of the skin on the face should be comprehensive. It includes measures to eliminate the cause of the disease, diet, use of local medicines.

Biodermia - treatment of seborrheic dermatitis on the face, photo 7

Biodermia - ointment for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis on the face, photo 7

For skin care can not choose the usual soap or gels with an aggressive composition. For washing use special skins or milk, which include salicylic acid, tea tree oil, witch hazel, lithium salts, selenium, zinc.

Alcohol-based products are excluded.

From medical cosmetics stand out brand Zindol, Sensibio, Sebovalis, Bioderma.

Of the drugs, ointments for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis are prescribed:

  • antibiotics;
  • vitamin and mineral complexes;
  • antihistamines;
  • antifungal ointment;
  • immunostimulants;
  • hormone ointments and creams;
  • means for the treatment of associated diseases.

If seborrhea has struck the skin of the eyelids, it is shown washing with antiseptic solutions and the use of eye ointments and drops with antibacterial properties.

Effectively complement the treatment of seborrhea on the face physiotherapy - darsonval, cryotherapy, ultraviolet radiation.

Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp

Here we also need an integrated approach, which includes, in addition to diet, such means:

  • antifungal gels and shampoos (Nizoral, Ketoconazole, Nizorex, Qelual DS, Sulsena);
  • antiseptics (tar soap, tea tree phyto essences, zinc paste );
  • vitamin therapy;
  • creams and ointments for seborrheic dermatitis (Lamisil, Zinocap, Advantan).
Shampoo Kelyual DS for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, photo 8

Shampoo Kelyual DS for treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, photo 8

Shampoos for seborrhea as an active therapeutic substance usually contain ketoconazole, ciclopirox, selenium sulfide, zinc pyrithione or medical tar.

They have an antiseptic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory effect, remove keratinized scales from the surface, moisturize and reduce peeling.

Healing shampoos are applied in courses of 15-30 days, and the frequency of washing the head is determined by the severity of seborrhea.

Therapeutic diet and folk remedies

Some foods can provoke the growth of fungal flora and enhance the production of sebaceous secretion of the skin, so diet in the treatment of seborrhea is of great importance.

From the diet should be excluded:

  • marinades, pickles, spicy, spicy dishes and smoked meats;
  • excess of simple carbohydrates (chocolate, sweets, sweet pastries);
  • fast food;
  • fatty and fried;
  • possible allergens (citrus fruits, strawberries, nuts, honey, eggs);
  • alcoholic drinks.

The menu should include vegetables and fruits, complex carbohydrates (cereals, cereal cereals, legumes), enough drinking water, lactic acid products, lean meats, vegetable oils.

Cooking is best steamed or baked.

From folk remedies as a supplement to the main treatment can be considered decoctions of calendula, nettle, dandelion, train, chamomile, tar ointment.

Prevention of seborrheic dermatitis

The likelihood of developing seborrhea reduces preventive measures:

  • hygiene;
  • rejection of the frequent use of alcoholic beverages;
  • maintaining a normal weight;
  • for women - a regular examination by a gynecologist;
  • hormonal control;
  • minimizing the effects of stress;
  • no overwork;
  • timely treatment of any diseases;
  • annual testing, at least blood and urine;
  • maintaining immunity.

In the prevention of seborrhea, it is also important to adhere to the plant-milk diet without excess fats and simple carbohydrates and take vitamins.

Seborrheic dermatitis mkb 10

In the international classification of diseases of the 10th revision (ICD-10), seborrheic dermatitis is:

Class XII - Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

L20 — L30 Dermatitis and Eczema

(L21) Seborrheic dermatitis

  • (L21.0) Seborrhea Head
  • (L21.1) Seborrheic pediatric dermatitis
  • (L21.8) Other seborrheic dermatitis
  • (L21.9) Seborrheic dermatitis, unspecified
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