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Type 1 diabetes mellitus: causes, symptoms and treatment, complications

According to statistics, diabetes is in second place in the world in frequency of occurrence, after cardiovascular pathologies.

The disease has a tendency to rejuvenation: if before insulin-dependent diabetes was a lot of people over 35 years old, today this pathology is diagnosed even in young children.


Type 1 diabetes - what is this disease?

what is this disease? Type 1 diabetes mellitus (or insulin-dependent diabetes) is an endocrine disease characterized by insufficient production of the hormone insulin by the pancreas. As a result, a person has an increased level of sugar in the blood plasma and the accompanying main symptoms - constant thirst, unreasonable weight loss.

The disease is incurable, therefore, in identifying diabetes, patients have to take medications for life, lowering blood sugar levels, and carefully monitor their condition.

Life expectancy with type 1 diabetes, with proper treatment and following the recommendations of a doctor, is quite high - more than 30-35 years.

Causes of type 1 diabetes

The exact causes of the disease is not installed. It is believed that the most predisposing factor for insulin-dependent diabetes is a genetic predisposition.

In addition to heredity, other factors may also lead to the development of the disease:

  • Obesity or overweight;
  • Dietary disturbance - the constant use of muffin, chocolate, simple carbohydrates, as a result of which the human body is disturbed by carbohydrate and fatty exchanges, which in turn provokes malfunctions in the pancreas;
  • Chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic necrosis;
  • Stress;
  • Alcoholism;
  • The use of drugs that are detrimental to the pancreatic cells responsible for the production of the hormone insulin (the so-called Langerhans islets);
  • Transferred infectious diseases and malfunctions of the thyroid gland.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes, photo 1

The first signs of type 1 diabetes are the following:

  • Rapid weight loss;
  • Increased thirst;
  • Increased appetite;
  • Increased urination (polyuria);
  • Lethargy, fatigue, drowsiness;
  • Hunger, which is accompanied by pallor of the skin, tachycardia, protrusion of cold sweat, a decrease in blood pressure;
  • Tingling in fingertips and muscle weakness.

одним из первых признаков диабета является сильный зуд промежности и наружных половых органов, который обусловлен наличием кристаллов сахара в моче. In women, one of the first signs of diabetes is severe itching of the perineum and external genital organs, which is caused by the presence of sugar crystals in the urine.

After visiting the toilet, urine drops remain on the skin and mucous membranes, causing severe irritation and unbearable itching, which causes women to consult a doctor.

первым клиническим проявлением диабета 1 типа является половая дисфункция (нарушение эрекции) и отсутствие полового влечения. In men, the first clinical manifestation of type 1 diabetes is sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) and the absence of sexual desire.

The disease may be latent for some time or the patient simply does not attach importance to the developing clinical picture.

An unhealed scratches and minor wounds on the skin surface, the formation of boils and ulcers, as well as a sharp deterioration of the immune system, frequent colds and general indisposition should cause an alert and become an occasion for immediate visits to the doctor.

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

Diagnosing insulin-dependent diabetes is usually not difficult, if a patient is suspected of being ill, they are prescribed a blood test to determine the level of glucose.

In order for the results of the study to be reliable, blood should be given strictly on an empty stomach, and 8 hours before the procedure, the patient should not eat sweets, eat food, drink coffee, smoke and take medicines.

The optimal indicator of blood sugar is 3-3.5 mmol / l, in pregnant women, these figures can reach 4-5 mmol / l, which is not a pathology. In diabetes, the level of glucose in the blood on an empty stomach will be 7.0-7.8 mmol / l.

For the accuracy of the diagnosis, the patient is given a glucose-tolerant test: first, blood is taken on an empty stomach, then the patient is given a glucose solution to drink and is recommended to retake the analysis after 2 hours. If the result after 2 hours is more than 9.0-11.0 mmol / l, this indicates diabetes mellitus type 1.

The most informative method for diagnosing a disease is the test for glycated A1C hemoglobin, which allows an accurate diagnosis and does not require a long preparation of the patient.

Treatment of type 1 diabetes

Treatment of type 1 diabetes When confirming the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes, the doctor paints the patient an individual treatment regimen - these are drugs that reduce the level of glucose in the blood, which the patient must take for life.

The dose of medication can be adjusted depending on the characteristics of the patient, the course of the disease, the parallel use of other drugs, the presence of complications.

At the initial stage of treatment, the patient is prescribed insulin preparations in tablet form, however, if the effect is insufficient or weak, and diabetes mellitus progresses, then insulin injections are used.

The dose of the hormone is calculated strictly individually, it must be administered subcutaneously to the patient (in the shoulder, the outer part of the thigh, the anterior abdominal wall).

Injection sites should be constantly alternated, as with insulin injections in one and the same place the patient quickly develops lipodystrophy.

Depending on the ability and amount of insulin production by the islets of Langerhans, the patient is prescribed background preparations (you need to enter several times a day) or prolonged action (1 injection per day is enough).

Each patient with a diagnosed type 1 diabetes must have a special blood glucose meter - a handheld device that allows you to quickly measure the level of glucose in the blood.

Insulin pump

Insulin Pump Photo 3

Insulin Pump Photo 3

Patients in whom the pancreas practically does not work and does not produce the hormone insulin are given an insulin pump.

The pump is a small device through which the patient in the body continuously receives insulin in a given dosage through a special tube with a needle. The needle is inserted into the anterior abdominal wall and is replaced every few days.

The advantage of this method of treatment is the abolition of the need to constantly inject insulin and better control of the course of the disease, however, the disadvantage of the pump is its high cost, as a result, not all diabetics can afford to install it.

Complications of type 1 diabetes

Complications of type 1 diabetes

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is insidious because the disease progresses rapidly and the patient's condition may rapidly deteriorate.

In case of delayed detection of pathology and in case of sudden drops in the level of glucose in the blood serum, the patient may develop complications:

  1. Diabetic angiopathy - the blood vessels of the eyes, limbs, heart, kidneys and other vital organs are affected, causing their work to be disrupted;
  2. Insufficient blood supply and nutrition of the heart muscle, heart attack;
  3. Gangrene - develops as a result of the appearance on the surface of the skin of small wounds and ulcers that do not heal and may constantly fester;
  4. Diabetic foot - changing the shape of the foot, reducing the sensitivity of the skin, fungal lesions and the formation of microscopic cracks;
  5. Hepatitis;
  6. Osteoporosis;
  7. Obesity of the liver.

The most dangerous complication of type 1 diabetes is coma:

  • Hypoglycemic - due to an overdose of insulin;
  • Ketoacidotic - caused by high blood glucose levels and the accumulation of ketone bodies.

Both conditions pose a threat to the patient's life, and in the absence of qualified, timely assistance, lead to death.

How much people live with diabetes mellitus type 1 depends largely on the clinical picture of the disease and the ability to control the level of glucose in the blood.

When all medical recommendations are followed, the diet is maintained and a healthy lifestyle is maintained, patients live to old age without complications.

Nutrition for type 1 diabetes

In addition to drug treatment, the patient must follow a diet with a sharp restriction of carbohydrates and fats (potatoes, animal fats, candy, chocolate, coffee, beans, cakes and pastries, fat cottage cheese, alcoholic beverages, pasta, fresh white bread).

The basis of the diet consists of cereals, bran, fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meat, dairy products.

Diabetes mellitus type 1 ICD 10

The international classification of diseases of type 1 diabetes is:

Class IV - Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00 - E90)

Diabetes mellitus (E10-E14)

  • E10 Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

The following items are excluded from this paragraph: diabetes mellitus associated with malnutrition (E12.-), newborns (P70.2), during pregnancy, during childbirth and in the postpartum period (O24.-), glycosuria: BDU (R81), renal (E74 .8), impaired glucose tolerance (R73.0), postoperative hypoinsulinemia (E89.1)


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