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Roseola in children: symptoms and treatment, photo, prognosis

The most mysterious acute viral disease in children is roseola. It is characterized by many-sided signs that are very similar to many pathological conditions - rubella, ARVI, allergies.

That is why it is confused and complicated in the diagnostic plan and is called differently - a three-day childhood fever, a sixth disease, a pseudo-bruise, or a sudden exanthema.

For nearly 118 years (from 1870 to 1988), scientists in the West and East have been searching for the mysterious genesis of the infection, affecting mainly infants.

It was only in the late nineties of the last century that the participation of neuro-virulent strains of mature six-type HHV virions (herpes virus) in the development of pediatric roseola (roseola infantum) was proved.

Content

Roseola - what is it?

Roseola in children

photo of roseola in a child

As a result of numerous studies, it was possible to draw up a detailed description, a laboratory and clinical picture of pediatric roseola - it turned out that the disease affects children of a certain category - babies after six months and up to three years of age. This is explained by the fact that passive protection of mother’s antibodies works well in children up to six months.

As shown by statistics in many countries, the disease is widespread and manifests itself mainly in a certain childhood period - from six months to one and a half years. Although recorded cases and seven year olds.

The characteristic symptoms of roseola in children, a rash of bright pink color and a sharp, sudden rise in temperature to critical points.

Although roseola belongs to the class of childhood infections, among adults there is a category of people at risk. Roseola poses a great danger for patients with severe immune diseases — HIV and AIDS infected patients, patients with malignant diseases, weakened by chemotherapy, organ or bone marrow transplantation.

The exhausted immune system of such patients is unable to cope with herpes infection on their own. Even a disease such as pediatric roseola can cause the development of pneumonia or encephalitis, so they need urgent hospitalization and selection of a special comprehensive treatment.

Roseola symptoms in children, photo

Roseola symptoms in children, photo

Both an adult and a child can become infected with razeola at any age, since herpes viruses are everywhere in the environment. Almost all people, not knowing about it, suffered this pathology, taking it for a cold or an allergic reaction to medications. Because in children of school age and in adults, immunity is successfully coped with roseola and the disease is asymptomatic.

Roseola symptoms in children under one year of age appear unexpectedly, manifesting themselves at the beginning of the ailment by a very high temperature (38-40 C). Such indicators can last up to five days.

Sometimes, against the background of fever in babies, tonic or tonic-clonic seizures (convulsions) can develop, and lymph nodes in the neck can increase in parallel.

As a rule, children are capricious and tearful, lose their appetite. Sometimes there is swelling of the eyelids, slight diarrhea or signs of a cold, however, there are no manifestations of purulent inclusions in the discharge. Within three to four days the swelling in the nasopharynx passes.

It is a runny nose that masks the sudden manifestation of exanthema under a cold infection. But not standing out at the same time, neither photophobia nor tearing, or inflammatory ENT processes.

The second characteristic symptom of sudden exanthema is a pinkish, intense spotted or papular type of rash. The usual place of its localization is the torso, facial and cervical region. Manifested in the form of small irregular rashes.

Does not cause any discomfort to babies, does not itch, does not cause scaling. For four days, passes on its own, leaving no traces on the skin. Slightly enlarged lymph nodes come to normal within a week.

Like many other viral pathologies, a sudden rash is transmitted by contact and presents a danger of infection, both during the rash and leaking even without signs of rash and high temperature.

  • The latent period of the disease from the moment of infection lasts from one and a half to two weeks.

When should I see a doctor?

The mere fact that a child has a high temperature is a good reason for seeking medical help, since high fever is the main symptom of many serious diseases.

Even if the doctor confirmed the fact of infecting the child with a baby roseola, but the fever lasts more than a week, and the dynamics of the rash has not changed for three days - a repeated call to the doctor is necessary to avoid possible complications.

Are complications possible?

Roseola complications are very rare, they can manifest themselves in the form of tonic seizures with high fever. In exceptional cases, swelling of the fontanel or meningoencephalitis may occur.

In the study of the disease, generalized inflammatory processes ( sepsis ) were diagnosed in 15% of young patients with the primary form of herpes.

Treatment of pediatric roseola

Treatment of pediatric roseola

In the absence of characteristic symptoms of rosacea in children, treatment and preventive measures may not be prescribed immediately, as it is not possible to recognize the disease in time. Diagnose the disease is possible only after the manifestation of the rash. By the way, parents themselves are able to distinguish pseudorasnuha from rubella .

With rubella, it is a rash on the background of fever indicates the development of the disease, whereas the rash with roseola appears only after the fever and indicates the end of the disease.

A slight increase in the submandibular and occipital lymph nodes, their soreness and dense structure, occurs with rubella, but an increase only in the nodes under the jaws, is characteristic of pseudo-rubella.

There is another sign by which pathology can be diagnosed - you should lightly press the spot of eruptions with your finger and hold for 15 seconds, if after this the spot becomes pale - it is roseola, if the spot color has not changed, or the tone of color has slightly changed, then this is a completely different pathology unrelated to exposure to the herpes virion.

How to treat roseola in a child?

Special therapeutic treatment of roseola in children does not exist. The disease is not particularly dangerous for children.

  • Antipyretic drugs in the form of suppositories and syrups are usually prescribed.
  • For a child, it is necessary to think about a sparing diet, including light vegetables puree, not strong broths, different cereals and children's drinks.

In order not to develop the process of dehydration, it is necessary to water the baby every 15 minutes or apply to the breast, if the baby is breastfed - but, you should not force-feed.

  • It is necessary to air the room more often and after the temperature drops, more often to take the child for a walk.

In this period, it is not contagious to others, although, due to a weakened immunity itself, it can be easily susceptible to any infections. So, you should avoid crowded places and contact with sick adults and children.

The prognosis of sudden exanthema is favorable, the body produces immunity to it, acting throughout life.

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