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Rhesus conflict during pregnancy: consequences, table, prevention

Preserving the life and health of the fetus is one of the tasks of the gynecologist who leads the pregnancy. Together with the future mother for nine months, he tries to do everything so that the baby is born without pathologies and in due time. But there are situations when, for one reason or another, the pregnant woman's body perceives the fetus not as a natural state, but as a foreign body and begins to actively deal with it.

One such example is the Rhesus conflict that arises between the mother and the child being born. It happens in cases when a woman who decides to become a mother has a negative Rh factor, and the fetus is positive.

In order to avoid the occurrence of critical situations, it is advisable for both parents to donate blood during planning - after all, Rhesus-conflict during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the child, up to and including his intrauterine death.

  • — при резус-конфликте ключевым фактором является резус-фактор крови, а не группа! It is important to understand - in the case of Rhesus conflict, the key factor is the Rh factor of the blood, not the group!

Content

What is positive and negative rhesus?

Rhesus conflict during pregnancy In 85% of people, red blood cells on their surface contain protein, which has the name Rh antigen. We know it as the Rh factor.

There are only 50 antigens, but most often, mentioning the Rh factor, doctors imply the presence of antigen D, as the most immunogenic. The blood of people who have such a protein on the surface of erythrocytes is defined as Rh-positive. Approximately 15 - 17% of the population in the composition of the blood on the surface of the red blood cells antigens are not detected.

Such people are defined as Rh negative. When procreation continues, they can pass on their Rh factor to children, or not at all, if the partner has a positive Rh antigen. In medicine, these types of blood are assigned the appropriate designations: Rh + and Rh-.

The presence of blood Rh- is not a pathology, rather, it is just a genetic feature. The life of such people is no different from the rest.

The only problem may arise when carrying a pregnancy, and in cases where both future parents have a negative Rh factor, the likelihood of Rh conflict is eliminated altogether.

When does rhesus conflict arise during pregnancy?

In order for the Rh-conflict to occur, it is necessary that the mother has Rh- blood, and the fetus - Rh +. Such a combination can appear only if the future father has positive blood, and then the probability that the child will inherit the Rh-antigen of the father is not 100%.

The baby may well take the negative blood of the mother and then the immunological conflict will be excluded. The possibility for this is quite big: 50% that the fetus will have Rh- blood, and 50% that the fetus will be with Rh + blood.

One should not forget - if there was no Rh-conflict in the first pregnancy, then the second fetus can inherit the positive blood of the father with the same probability, and for successful pregnancy the child will need constant medical supervision and the introduction of special drugs.

Consequences of rhesus conflict during pregnancy

Consequences of rhesus conflict during pregnancy Currently, doctors have developed special schemes of analyzes and techniques of drugs, which are prescribed for pregnant women in the event of an immunological conflict with the fetus.

But if the situation is started and ignored by a doctor’s prescription, the pregnancy can end badly. The condition of the baby will also be difficult if it is born.

In total, there are several outcomes in the absence of competent therapy in such situations:

The birth of a dead child - can occur both prematurely and in time. The baby dies in utero due to the failure of internal organs, numerous internal and external edema, accumulated fluid inside the body.

In other words, the child’s body does not cope with the biological attack of the mother’s body, which treats the fetus as an alien body.

High levels of bilirubin in the newborn — due to the fact that the fetus had to constantly defend itself against attacks of the mother’s immune system, his liver worked for the most part of the gestation period. The antibodies of the woman penetrated the placenta and damaged the red blood cells in the baby’s blood. As a result, after birth, red blood cells are unable to carry oxygen.

Because of this, hemoglobin comes out of them and is converted to bilirubin. The loss of a large amount of hemoglobin causes the liver to produce a large number of red blood cells. Because of this, it increases in size, and the bilirubin values ​​do not fall.

If the doctors fail to take control of the situation, the child’s brain can be seriously injured.

Fetal hypoxia –develops as the antibodies increase in the mother’s blood during pregnancy. Its appearance is directly related to the destruction of the child's red blood cells, which cannot adequately supply oxygen. As a result of hypoxia, the entire body suffers, especially the brain.

The gynecologist should conduct additional examinations of the pregnant woman to detect the presence and degree of oxygen starvation of the fetus.

Thickening of the placenta - is formed due to the attack of antibodies of the immune system of the mother, which are able to penetrate the children's place. Any external threats directed at the child, whether it is viruses, oxygen deprivation, or the effect of the antibodies of the placenta, react with premature aging (that is, thickening).

As a result, it changes its structure, which no longer allows the normal exchange of nutrients between mother and fetus.

Consequences for the child, Rh-conflict during pregnancy, can be very serious - if not taken therapeutic and preventive measures. Therefore, when planning a pregnancy, you need to mentally adjust yourself to the fact that female consultation will have to be visited much more often, compared to other expectant mothers.

The probability of Rh-conflict during pregnancy + table

Mother Rh +, father Rh +

Rhesus conflict can not be. In 75% of cases with this combination, the child inherits the blood Rh +. But in 25% of cases, Rh-positive parents may have a baby with Rh- blood.

Mother Rh +, father Rh-

Rhesus conflict can not be. However, it is difficult to predict what blood the child will inherit, since in 50% of cases it can be Rh +, and with the same probability the baby can be born with Rh- blood.

Mother Rh-, father Rh +

The probability of rhesus conflict is. The risks increase with the second and subsequent pregnancies, so doctors advise these women not to have an abortion, especially if the pregnancy is the first. The probability of inheritance is the same as in the previous case: 50% that the baby will be with Rh + blood, and 50% that the blood will be Rh-.

Mother Rh-, father Rh-

Rhesus conflict can not be. Unlike parents who have a positive Rh factor, in this case the possibility of having a child with Rh + blood is completely excluded. Such a pair can only give birth to children with a negative Rh factor.

Obviously, the various Rhesus factors of the parents during pregnancy do not always cause an immunological conflict with the fetus. And if the child’s blood is the same as the mother’s Rh antigen, then the pregnancy has every chance to proceed without complications. And the blood group does not matter here.

For convenience, here is a table of Rh-conflict in pregnancy.

MAMA DAD CHILD CONFLICT PROBABILITY
+ + 75% +
25% -
not
- + 50% +
50% -
there is - 50%
+ - 50% +
50% -
not
- - 100% - not

Preventive measures for the development of Rhesus conflict

The likelihood of an immunological conflict between the mother and the fetus increases with each subsequent pregnancy. For the same reason, the process of carrying a child worsens. In each case, the doctor individually decides which prophylactic scheme to choose the patient.

If the pregnancy is the first, then the analysis for Rh antibodies is carried out in the second trimester, from 18 to 20 weeks. If the number of antibodies is 1: 4 inclusive, then the next examination is carried out only after 10 weeks. If antibody levels are elevated, monitoring of titers is carried out once every one and a half to two weeks.

Exactly with the same frequency, the blood test is done starting from week 30, even if the antibody readings are normal. In the ninth month of pregnancy, the examination is carried out once every 7 days.

Since, referring to the Rh factor, physicians imply antigen D, then during pregnancy at the beginning of the seventh month, the expectant mother is administered anti-Rh immunoglobulin D with a negative Rh.

Carrying a child in Rhesus conflict requires increased attention from both the doctors and the woman herself. However, medicine today provides ample opportunities for such a pregnancy to end safely - the birth of a healthy baby.

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