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Rheovasography: what is the study

Pathologies of blood circulation and blood supply to organs and tissues are not always clinically manifested. Some diseases have a sudden and very acute onset, which makes it difficult to diagnose them. Small and almost imperceptible signs, such as numbness of the limbs, tingling in the fingers, headache, and dizziness, can be mistakenly attributed to poor health. All these manifestations may indicate a fairly serious health problems. Reovasographic study of the vessels of the extremities, neck and head is a good and long-established method that helps diagnose pathology in the early stages of development.

Content

What is reovasography

Rheovasography is one of the long-existing diagnostic research methods that studies the intensity of blood circulation and its nutrition in various organs and tissues. Using this procedure, it is possible to draw conclusions about the presence of blood supply deficiency and to determine the main areas of the body that receive the least nutrition.

The founders of the methodology are traditionally considered to be Azler and Lehman - two scientists who discovered this method of studying blood supply disorders in 1931. Reovasography received wide popularity already in the sixties.

How does the blood circulation in the body

In order to finally understand the essence of the research, it is necessary to recall a little the basics of the anatomy and physiology of the human body. As you know, there are three types of blood:

  • arterial, rich in oxygen and nutrients;
  • venous, saturated with carbon dioxide and decomposition products;
  • mixed
Circles of blood circulation

Knowledge of blood circulation will help to understand the structure of reovasography

In humans, there are two circles in which blood circulates in the body: the lung and systemic organ. Small regulates blood circulation in the pulmonary system, while the large one is responsible for the blood supply to other organs and tissues . From the left cardiac chamber, blood enters the aortic system, spreading further along the arteries, each of which at the end of its path forms small branches called arterioles. They, in turn, are divided into capillaries.

Small venules form veins that carry decay products from organs and tissues, as well as carbon dioxide. This blood through the venous trunks enters the right heart chamber, where it is saturated with oxygen and re-enters the large circle.

Types of rheovasography

Previously, it was only possible to study hemodynamics in the upper or lower limbs. In modern medicine there are many variations of this study.

Types of rheovasography:

  • The classic version: examination of the vessels of the upper and lower extremities;
  • examination of deep vessels of the neck;
  • rheovasography of cerebral vessels.

Using rheovasography, information is obtained on the state of the vascular wall, the patency and filling of the bloodstream. Since under the action of the force of gravity and the person is walking a large load falls precisely on the lower limbs, most often they prescribe such a research procedure to determine the degree of damage to the legs' vessels.

The essence of the study

It has long been known that the tissues of the human body have an interesting ability to pass electric currents through themselves. Between the cells of the body contains a liquid that has in its composition various electrolytes - these are ions of the elements of the periodic table. The currents are best carried out by the liquid and soft media of the human body: blood, plasma, bile, intestinal and gastric juices. Bone and cartilaginous tissues have the worst electrical conductivity.

Wires with electric current

The human body, like a unique conductor, passes electricity through itself.

The technique of rheovasography is based on the ability of the body to pass electricity through itself. Biological materials and fluids can not only conduct electricity, but also accumulate a certain amount of it, forming a kind of depot. During testing, the human body is exposed to a current of various frequencies, which causes the resistance index to change. If the tissues and organs are well filled with blood, it will be minimal. When resistance grows, you should seriously think about the presence of pathologies.

The heart pumps blood like a pump, contracting and relaxing again. Therefore, the blood supply of organs, depending on the time period, will be unequal. The portion of blood that causes an increase in vascular pressure gets into the aorta phase. As this portion passes, the pressure gradually decreases and returns to normal. Such a physiological phenomenon is called a pulse wave. The wave also has its own characteristics:

  • intensity;
  • fullness;
  • strength;
  • frequency;
  • elasticity.

The result of rheovasography is reovasogram - a graphical way of displaying and interpreting the results obtained. It is a graph with waves of different amplitudes. According to changes in the nature of this curve, an experienced specialist is able to diagnose and assess the condition of the vascular wall of the upper and lower extremities, as well as the arteries of the brain and neck.

The main advantages and disadvantages of methods

Each diagnostic method has its positive and negative sides. Unfortunately, there are no absolutely convenient, fast and at the same time safe methods of research. Rheovasography is unfairly considered to be a thing of the past, since it is used only in the territory of the Russian Federation and the CIS.

Woman on the rheovasography procedure

Rheovasography was widely used for the diagnosis of diseases in the USSR

Positive aspects of reovasography:

  1. Non-invasive procedure. It is not necessary to introduce contrasts or other medicinal substances, as well as to damage the skin integument one way or another. This makes reovasography a method of choice in the study of young children.
  2. Security. The complete absence of harmful effects and radiation from the apparatus allows the study of pregnant, lactating and children of different ages.
  3. Simplified procedure. No need to use complex methods of connecting and fixing devices. The presence of one doctor and a nurse in the office is enough.
  4. Computerized verification of results. Such an analysis is more reliable and does not contain actual errors.
  5. The speed of holding. No need to linger in the doctor's office for longer than 20 minutes.
  6. The correctness of the results.
  7. Cheapness of the procedure.
  8. Diagnostic significance. Many vascular pathologies can be identified using rheovasography.

Disadvantages of the rheovasography method:

  1. Low demand compared with other research methods. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are more popular.
  2. Human factor: violation of the rules of preparation and contraindications may lead to a distortion of the information received.
  3. Interference frequency The equipment for reovasogram removal in many hospitals does not comply with the technical standard, which can cause serious interference on the chart. In this case, the study will have to redo it in the near future.

Important indications and contraindications

Reovasography is recommended for both diagnostic and prophylactic purposes at least twice a year. If the patient already has a vascular disease and it is necessary to control its course, as well as observe the clinical picture over time, the procedure is performed much more often. The main purpose of rheovasography is to obtain and analyze data on the state of the vascular bed.

Indications for the study:

  • atherosclerotic damage to vessels of various localization;
  • diabetes mellitus of the first and second type;
  • chronic circulatory failure;
  • violation of blood clotting;
  • tendency to the formation of thrombotic masses in the lumen of blood vessels;
  • embolism;
  • vascular dystonia;
  • acute and chronic disorders of cerebral circulation;
  • Varicose veins;
  • neck pain;
  • headaches and dizziness of unknown etiology;
  • frequent syncope and syncope;
  • Raynaud's syndrome;
  • connective tissue disease;
  • previously diagnosed abnormalities of the development of great vessels;
  • hypertension and symptomatic arterial hypertension.
Varicose veins of the legs

Diagnosis of varicose veins - the most common area of ​​application of reovasography

Despite the safety of the procedure, some human factors can interfere with its proper implementation. That is why it is worthwhile to postpone reovasography or transfer it to another day in order to get the most reliable and complete result of the study.

If there is any doubt whether it is possible to attend the reovasography procedure, one should consult a phlebologist or a cardiologist.

Contraindications for reovasography:

  • intoxication;
  • drug intoxication;
  • fever for several days;
  • acute infectious diseases;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • acute allergic reactions to components of functional tests;
  • acute phase of schizotypal disorder;
  • the manic phase of biphasic personality disorder;
  • written documented refusal of the procedure.

How to prepare yourself for an examination

No special recommendations for preparing for the survey will not have to comply. No need to adhere to a strict diet, clean the intestines with an enema or make other unpleasant manipulations. One of the significant advantages of reovasography is its simplicity. But if you do not follow a few simple rules, there is a possibility of a slight violation or even a significant distortion of the results of the survey.

The doctor conducts reovasography

The human factor can distort the result of reovasography

What rules need to be followed before reovasography:

  • try not to experience strong stress the day before the procedure;
  • sleep at least eight hours a day;
  • two days before the study, do not use cardiotonic drugs and drugs that affect the state of the vascular wall (if you can not cancel the drug according to vital signs, you can safely skip this item);
  • do not smoke three hours before the procedure;
  • not to drink strong alcoholic beverages the day before the examination;
  • ten minutes before the start of reovasography, relax the muscles of the body as much as possible;
  • Do not take your phone, player or tablet with you to your office.

Methodology

Before starting the procedure, the doctor and nurse examine the patient for the presence of extraneous irritating stimuli. After that, sensors-electrodes are placed on the examination area (head, neck, upper or lower extremities), which are connected using thin wires to the main apparatus located in close proximity to the patient's head. The patient sits comfortably in a chair or placed on a couch.

Child with sensors on his head

The study of cerebral blood flow is usually performed in a sitting position.

When conducting a study of the vessels of the lower and upper extremities, the patient is asked to undress in order to exclude the factor of compression of the vessels with tight clothing. In addition, it is necessary to maintain a special mode in the room. If necessary, the patient is covered with a sterile disposable diaper for the entire duration of the rheovasography procedure.

Video: rheovasography technique

Conducting functional tests with rheovasography

To determine the nature of the pathology (violation of the structure or functioning of the vessel) use special samples. It should be noted that the nitroglycerin test has some contraindications: pregnant women and young children should refrain from such research. The same can be said about people with allergies to nitroglycerin.

Cold test

Most often, such testing is used to study the condition of the blood vessels of the hands and to diagnose Raynaud's disease. Before starting the test, remove the first control rheovasogram. Then the fingers of both upper limbs descend into the icy water for one minute. After 2 minutes after that, the second rheovasogram is removed, after 7 and 12 minutes - the third and fourth.

Hands with pale fingers in Raynaud's disease after cold test

Discoloration of the skin in Raynaud's disease is observed quite often.

Raynaud's disease is a hypertrophied vascular response to the cold test, which is associated with a violation of their functional integrity.

A sample can be called positive if compared with the control reovasogram on it, a significant decrease in all indices is observed with their slow (up to 40 minutes) recovery to the initial level. A negative is considered a sample in which the values ​​of the indices return to the original after 10 minutes.

Test with nitroglycerin

After the control reovasogram was removed, the patient is asked to put a nitroglycerin tablet under the tongue and dissolve.

It is necessary to slowly dissolve the medication under the tongue. You can not immediately swallow or crush the pill: it will not cause the desired effect and can lead to a sharp drop in vascular tone.

Nitroglycerin in a tube

Nitroglycerin tablets are used to relax the vascular wall

When the elastic index increases by more than one tenth, changes in blood vessels are called functional, and the result of the test is considered positive.

A negative result indicates stenosis as a cause of impaired patency.

Possible negative effects and complications

As with any diagnostic procedure, reovasography has some unpleasant consequences. Currently, the possibility of their occurrence is practically minimized. The occurrence of complications is not associated with the features of the study, but with the individual hyperreactivity and hypersensitivity of a single organism. Also, be sure to consult with your doctor and take into account all possible contraindications for this examination. If in doubt, it is recommended to postpone the procedure indefinitely.

Persons with increased excitability of the nervous system, who react negatively to any medical intervention, are advised to take a sedative pill immediately before the procedure. This will facilitate the work of the doctor and the perception of the study by the patient.

Possible consequences:

  • anaphylactic shock;
  • Quincke edema and urticaria;
  • itching and peeling of the skin;
  • hyperreactivity in response to functional tests;
  • tissue compression and hematoma formation;
  • cramps and cramps.

If you experience unpleasant or strange sensations, you must immediately inform your doctor. The procedure will be interrupted. Once the cause of bad health is completely eliminated, you can return to the study.

Rheovasography is an absolutely safe procedure that does not cause significant harm to health: during its implementation no radiation, fields or impulses are used.

Reovazografiya performed for young children and pregnant or lactating women. This again proves the fact that the procedure does not interfere with the work of the human body.

How to decipher the results of the survey

The reovasogram obtained in the study of a completely healthy person who does not suffer from vascular pathology has the form of regular graphs. Each chart contains special teeth that form a complex compound. They are divided into major (largest) and minor (larger number, but smaller amplitude). The height of large teeth is from 9 to 13 mm, and the width or duration is 1/4 second. Нисходящая часть представляет собой степень растяжения сосудистой стенки из-за кровенаполнения, а восходящая соответствует сосудистому сокращению. Когда формируется патология артериального кровотока, на графике можно увидеть существенное уменьшение размера основного зубца, увеличение его длины, а также исчезновение второстепенных.

График реовазографии

Расшифровкой графиков занимаются только специалисты

Для получения достоверных результатов следует учитывать также некоторые статические и динамические величины, полученные при измерении:

  1. Индекс эластичности (ИЭ). С его помощью можно определить, в каком состоянии находится сосудистая стенка. Норма составляет 0,4. Показатель значительно ниже нормы свидетельствует о серьёзных нарушениях в сфере кровообращения, из-за которых определённым органам и тканям не хватает питания.
  2. Peripheral resistance (IPA). This indicator reflects the nature of blood circulation in the microvasculature, which is represented by capillaries, arterioles and veins. Do not forget that it is through microcirculation that the nutrition of especially difficult parts of our body (organs of sight and hearing, medulla) occurs. The rate is from 0.2 to 0.45. When resistance decreases, the metabolic processes in the cells are disturbed.
  3. The amount of ottok (VO). It characterizes the state of the venous bed. Normally, its value is 0.5. The decrease in the indicator indicates that the proper utilization of the decay products from the body is not happening.

In this regard, there are several types of blood flow disorders:

  1. Adaptive type. It is characterized by a slight decrease in elastic index and peripheral resistance. It is almost asymptomatic: the patient may only be bothered by tingling in the fingertips.
  2. Poorly adapted type. Significant decrease in all indices. Clinically, frequent fainting and dizziness, numbness of the limbs and cramps.
  3. Unadapted type. All indices are reduced, pronounced violations of the internal organs: a drop in vision, an increased risk of stroke and thrombosis, the formation of ulcerative abscesses on the skin of the upper and lower extremities.

Table: results of rheovasography

Indicator Dramatically reduced Moderately reduced Norm Moderately elevated Sharply upgraded
RI (eographical index) <0.04 0.04–0.05 > 0.05 - -
IE <0.2 0.2–0.4 > 0.4 - -
IPS <0.15
relieved
0.15–0.2 0.2–0.45
norm
0.45–0.55 > 0.55
difficult
IN <0.2 - 0.2–0.5 - > 0.5

Reviews of the procedure

Rheovasography is primarily a non-informative method, and its results are very often interpreted differently. I recommend to consult with a competent vascular surgeon (phlebologist), who, taking into account your complaints and visual picture, will determine the correct amount of additional examination and develop a personalized treatment program.

Yudin Roman Yuryevich

https://www.consmed.ru/flebolog/view/427043/

Rheovasography of the lower extremities is an outdated and uninformative method. We study the pulse volume of the lower extremities based on the registration of changes in the electrical resistance of tissues. Do you know about REG? And this is even worse. Very confusing results and a lot of factors distorting the information (for example, edema - well, all with edema reduced blood filling).

Anna_Shvedova

https://forums.rusmedserv.com/archive/index.php/t-20341.html

RVG, that is, reovasography, today is not a diagnostically significant study ... it is morally outdated and not very informative. In fact, you just measured the tone of blood vessels, and it depends on the hormonal levels, pressure, mode of physical activity.

Julia

https://www.babyblog.ru/community/post/living/1777180

Although the diagnosis with the help of REG is considered by many to be useless, this procedure helped us to make the diagnosis correctly. My daughter had a headache, eyes and vomiting at night. The procedure consists of two stages, the first when the patient is placed on a couch and a special rim is put on her head. At this point, you need to relax as much as possible in order to get reliable results. The second stage with the schedule that you get in the office of REG, and you need to go to the doctor, who correctly decipher all this data. After the REG, my daughter’s head was smeared with a special gel, so I had to wipe it thoroughly, so as not to go with a wet head. Having received a transcript, we went to a neurologist; She, after reading the conclusion, agreed and confirmed my concerns and prescribed a course with drugs that improved my daughter's condition. Therefore, I consider this diagnosis to be effective.

tutor

http://otzovik.com/review_3210733.html

The vessels of the human body are the most important sources of nutrition for all organs, carrying beneficial substances and oxygen to the tissues. When their pathology occurs hypoxia and ischemia, which can lead to life-threatening complications. It is necessary to pay attention to your health and regularly undergo preventive medical examinations, carefully state your complaints to the therapist. Timely diagnosis and prevention of complications will help avoid unpleasant consequences and maintain their health for many years.

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