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Rectocele: treatment methods, symptoms and complications of the disease

With a decrease in vaginal muscle tone in women, pathological protrusions and diseases can occur, one of which is rectocele.

The rectal rectocele is a prolapse (not a characteristic protrusion) of the intestinal walls into the vaginal cavity, which is formed as a result of thinning and reduction of rectal muscle tone and accumulation of fecal masses in the pathological area.

With the development of pathology, a woman suffers from incomplete emptying of the intestines, the development of putrefactive processes inside, the accession of a secondary infection as a result of the reabsorption of toxic substances from the faeces into the blood.

Rectocele of the rectum

Rectocele of the rectum

The causes of the disease

Predisposing factors to the development of this pathology are:

  • Frequent delivery and pregnancy;
  • Bearing several babies at once;
  • Pathological labors with obstetric forceps or vacuum applied;
  • Episiotomy of the perineum during childbirth;
  • Chronic constipation;
  • Sedentary lifestyle;
  • Congenital weakness of the muscular system of the pelvic organs;
  • Overweight women, obesity;
  • Weight lifting;
  • Frequent change of sexual partners, rough sex.


Degrees of rectocele and symptoms of manifestations

Degree rectocele

Degrees rectocele, protrusion of the rectum

The severity of clinical signs of rectocele largely depends on the degree of development of the pathological protrusion:

1 degree - the clinical picture of the disease is absent, the woman notes only frequent constipation, which does not associate with any pathological processes.

Grade 2 - the patient complains of chronic constipation, difficulty with emptying the bowel, a feeling of incomplete emptying after defecation. At this extent, there is a protrusion of the rectal wall into the vaginal cavity.

Grade 3 - self-emptying of the intestines is impossible, a woman needs to put her hand into the vagina and push the protrusion towards the anus or perineum.

At this stage of the development of the disease, secondary pathological processes join - paraproctitis, proctitis, fistula formation, hemorrhoids, anal fissure.

Diagnose rectocele

Diagnosis of the disease is usually not difficult for a specialist. As a rule, a woman seeks a consultation with a proctologist, who, at the initial examination, can make the correct diagnosis by collecting a history of the patient's life, data on labor activity and hereditary predisposition.

In a rectal-finger examination, an expert detects a protrusion of the rectal wall into the vaginal cavity.

Based on the diagnosis and general condition of the patient, appropriate treatment is prescribed.

Rectocele treatment

The main and most effective method of treatment of this pathology is surgery.

Treatment of rectocele without surgery is possible only if the disease was diagnosed at the initial stage, when the clinical picture is absent, and difficulties with emptying the intestine are minor.

The main task of conservative therapy is to restore the evacuation function of the large intestine, namely, the establishment of a regular chair.

To achieve regular and painless bowel movement allows a special diet rich in fiber, as well as compliance with the drinking regimen.

A mobile lifestyle helps to increase intestinal motility, thereby normalizing its evacuation abilities. In some cases, it is important to use laxative drugs based on lactulose - a natural component that has no age restrictions and contraindications.

To accelerate the formation of fecal masses and the normalization of bowel function, probiotics are prescribed to patients.

To strengthen the musculo-ligamentous apparatus of the vagina and uterus, the woman is prescribed to perform special physical exercises, the most effective are Kegel exercises.

Suture after surgery to remove rectocele

Suture after surgery to remove rectocele

In case of detection of the 3rd degree of rectocele, an operation is carried out aimed at restoring the normal functioning of the rectum and strengthening the muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the vagina.

Depending on the site of the localization of the pathological protrusion, access to the rectocele is carried out through the anterior abdominal wall, vagina or rectum.

The surgeon's actions are carried out in several stages: first, prolapse is eliminated (pathological protrusion), the rectum is fixed in the physiological position, after which the muscles responsible for raising the anus are sutured and the muscular framework of the vaginal-rectal septum is strengthened.

Treatment of rectal rectocele in surgery is possible with a minimally invasive endoscopic method, which is characterized by the installation of a mesh implant of high-quality material.

This implant reliably fixes the walls of the intestines and vagina in its physiological position and prevents the formation of pathological protrusion.

Complications of rectocele

Complications of rectocele In the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment of prolapse will progress, which is fraught with the development of the following complications:

  • The prolapse of the uterus and the prolapse of the internal genital organs of the woman out of the vagina;
  • Formation of fistulas in the rectovaginal zone and perineum;
  • Involvement in the pathological process of the bladder as a result of weak tone of the muscles of the pelvis;
  • Bleeding from the anus;
  • Pain and discomfort during intercourse;
  • Damage to the intestinal walls, minor inconspicuous bleeding, against which iron deficiency anemia is gradually developing.

Disease prevention

To prevent the development of prolapse of the vaginal walls and rectocele should follow simple recommendations:

  1. Follow the regular bowel movement;
  2. Do not gain weight;
  3. Balanced and full nutrition;
  4. Move more;
  5. Do not lift weights;
  6. Promptly treat inflammatory bowel disease;
  7. Perform simple physical activities that strengthen the pelvic muscular system.

Women are advised to undergo preventive check-ups at a gynecologist twice a year.


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