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Decryption of analyzes

Deciphering the total urine analysis in adults, a table of results

General clinical examination of urine is often prescribed to patients with various complaints, and to completely healthy people undergoing medical examination.

Deciphering the total urine test for an adult is simple, urinary rates are quite simple. Their knowledge will help avoid unnecessary anxiety when receiving analysis results.

Indications for analysis

Urine testing is included in the standard list of diagnostic procedures. Indications for it:

  • Annual dispensary observation with the preventive purpose.
  • Detection of pathology of the kidneys and urinary system.
  • Diagnosis of prostate diseases.
  • Mandatory research before surgery, when contacting a doctor with any complaints.
  • Recently transferred angina, scarlet fever (prevention of kidney complications).
  • Suspected diabetic pathology.
  • Examination to control the dynamics of the disease and the effectiveness of treatment.


Deciphering urinalysis in adults

So, we will consistently consider all the indicators studied in the standard general clinical analysis of urine, their rate and causes. Cause some deviations.

The table of results of the general analysis of urine in an adult

Indicator Values ​​of the analysis result
Colour light yellow
Transparency transparent
Density 1010 - 1022 g / l
PH reaction sour 4 - 7
Smell Unsharp
PRO (protein) 0.033 g / l
GLU (glucose) 0.8 mmol / l
KET (ketone bodies) no (negative)
BIL (bilirubin) not
Uro (urobilinogen) not
Hemoglobin not
LEU (leukocytes) 0 - 3 (m) \ 0 - 6 (g)
BLD (red blood cells) (m) single \ (g) 2 - 3
Epithelium to 10
Cylinders not
The salt not
Nit (nitrates and bacteria) not
Fungus not

Detailed deciphering of indicators of the general urine analysis from the table of results:

  • Colour

Normal: light yellow

A change in the color index may be due to dehydration (colorless), and its acquisition of a dark, red, brown color indicates severe damage to the urinary system, ranging from pyelonephritis to stones and oncology.

  • Transparency

Norm: transparent

Turbid urine indicates the presence of pathological inclusions in it: mucus, salts, large numbers of epithelium, leukocytes, etc.

  • Density

Norm: 1010-1022 g / l

The increase in density is due to the presence in the urine of salts, protein, sugar, bacteria.

  • PH reaction

Norm: acid, 4-7

Low acidity is characteristic of vegetarians, a number of kidney diseases and an imbalance of microelements and hormones in the body.
Acidity of urine increases with dehydration, exhausting diets and fasting, diabetes.

  • Urine smell

Norm: specific

The ammonia smell in urine almost always indicates diabetic pathology.

  • PRO breakdown: protein

Norm: up to 0.033 g / l (traces of protein)

The physiological appearance of protein in the form of its traces may be a consequence of eating salty / spicy, alcohol drinking on the eve of the test.
Severe proteinuria is characteristic of inflammatory processes in the kidneys, nephrosis.

Learn more about what protein in the urine means , what you should pay attention to.

  • GLU transcript: glucose

Norm: not higher than 0.8 mmol / l

The main reason for the appearance of sugar in the blood is often not previously diagnosed with diabetes. At the same time the indicator rises to 10 mmol / l. Also, glucose is found in acute pancreatitis, nephrotic syndrome, pheochromocytoma.

  • KET decryption: ketone bodies

Norm: none, none, neg (negative)

Detection of ketones indicates impaired metabolic processes in the body. Ketones are characteristic of alcohol intoxication, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis.

  • Deciphering Bil: Bilirubin

Norm: No

Bilirubin in the urine indicates liver damage, hemolytic disease, or severe toxic poisoning.

  • Decoding URO: urobilinogen

Norm: No

Its appearance is a consequence of liver failure, intestinal inflammation, sepsis.

  • Hemoglobin

Norm: No

Hemoglobin in the urine appears in myocardial infarction, cancer and kidney injuries, indicates a large-scale destruction of red blood cells in malaria , burns, intravenous infusion of blood.

  • LEU decryption: leukocytes

Norm: male gender - 0-3, female gender - 0-6

Leukocyturia, a symptom of an inflammatory process that develops in the kidneys and urethra, indicates bladder damage or prostate pathology.

More details on what increased leukocytes in the urine mean and in what cases are dangerous.

  • Bld transcript: red blood cells

Norm: men - single, women - 2-3

High levels of red blood cells - an indicator of severe pathology of the kidneys and urinary system.

Learn more about what red blood cells mean in the urine .

  • Epithelium

Norm: up to 10

Urinary epithelium is characteristic of nephrosis, cystitis, nephrosis.

  • Cylinders

Norm: no or single hyaline

The presence of cylinders in the sword indicates renal pathology. Hyaline cylinders appear in hypertension, diuretic, pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis.

The presence of erythrocyte, granular, epithelial, waxy cylinders is clearly a pathology.

The salt

Norm: No

Detection of urates, oxalates, phosphates, and hippuric acid particles is considered pathological.

  • Decoding nit: nitrites or bacteria

Norm: No

Bacteriuria is a sign of urinary tract infection.

  • Fungus

Norm: No

The fungus accompanies cystitis, prostatitis, vaginitis, immunodeficiency.

Features of urine analysis in pregnant women

Deciphering urinalysis in adults

Along with the norms adopted for the adult population, deciphering the general urine test for pregnant women may include the following indicators:

  • increased density - accompanied by toxicosis;
  • slight appearance of sugar;
  • traces of protein (temporary).

Other, especially significant deviations make it possible to suspect the development of pathology, which can adversely affect the female body and the development of the fetus.

Features of urine analysis in children

Children's urine is slightly different from the adult. The main differences:

  • lighter color;
  • lower density - 1001-1005 in newborns, by 3 years old is comparable with adult parameters;
  • protein - in newborns up to 5 g / l;
  • hyaline cylinders - immediately after birth;
  • ammonium urate - when breastfeeding;
  • urates - the period of neonatality.

It is worth noting that deciphering the total urine analysis in a child implies small fluctuations in parameters due to physiological factors: a change in diet, hyperactivity, and stress. However, these changes are temporary and do not reach significant numbers.

The mother should pay special attention to the hygiene of the baby and the proper collection of urine in order to avoid putting bacteria and fungi into the analysis. Ideal - wait for urination and collect urine in a clean jar.

Often urination in infants is accompanied by defecation. This is absolutely unacceptable, since food particles (protein) and E. coli can enter the urine, which will distort the result of the study.

If the reanalysis again reveals any abnormalities, a more detailed diagnosis should be made to identify the causative disease in the early stages.


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