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Umbilical hernia in adults: symptoms and treatment, surgery, complications, prognosis

Man, on the one hand, is the crown of nature, and all the achievements of civilization directly or indirectly indicate that. The head and the hands of man are the organs that created our world. But, freeing his hands for work, and assuming an upright posture, the man sacrificed a lot.

For example, due to erect position, the load on the spine increased, a disease such as osteochondrosis appeared. A vertical position of the abdominal cavity and the load on the hands contributed to an increase in pressure in it.

The abdominal muscles are not equally dense everywhere: sometimes weak points are formed between the bundles, into which the peritoneum bulges, and behind it the nearby contents rush: intestinal loop. It is a hernia of the white line of the abdomen and an umbilical hernia. Weak points of the abdominal wall are lower: they form inguinal and femoral hernias.

How dangerous is the appearance of such an education as an umbilical hernia? What does she look like and how to fight it?

Content

Umbilical hernia - what is it?

The umbilical hernia is a pathological formation in which the peritoneum with the abdominal organs adjacent to it is carried under the skin, under the influence of internal pressure, in case of weakness of the umbilical ring. The navel in Latin is umbo, and the umbilical hernia is therefore called umbilical.

  • A characteristic symptom is a reduction in protrusion, or complete disappearance (spontaneous contraction) in the supine position.

The frequency of occurrence with this localization is approximately 6-10%. More often it is observed in women who have given birth, as well as in the rural population, due to the greater physical exertion.

How is the umbilical hernia?

Umbilical hernia in adults photo

Umbilical hernia in adults photo

Umbilical hernia closeup photo

Umbilical hernia closeup photo

Any hernia, including the umbilical, consists of three parts: the gate ("weak spot"), the bag (which is visible from the outside), and the contents, which, having penetrated through the gate, are in the bag. In the case of an umbilical hernia, it can be a big omentum, or worse, loops of the small intestine.

It is on the behavior of the content depends on the forecast. For example, with prolonged protrusion, the occurrence of pain, deterioration of well-being, it is possible that the bag contents become completely dead.

Therefore, any attempt to correct such a hernia will lead to the development of peritonitis, which is fraught with death. Such a condition in which an urgent operation is needed is called hernia incarceration.

Why does a hernia occur?

The main producing factor is congenital or acquired stretching of the umbilical ring, which constantly increases with an increase in intra-abdominal pressure: this occurs, for example, when crying in children and during spontaneous, especially prolonged labor in women.

Predisposing factors to the development of umbilical, or umbilical hernia in adults are:

  • with habitual constipation;
  • with abdominal obesity;
  • with weakness of the abdominal muscles;
  • with cicatricial postoperative changes in the umbilical region;
  • with frequent pregnancies;
  • due to pronounced physical stress, for example, when lifting weights;
  • in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases: asthma, coughing attacks;

It is not hard to guess that there are only two factors: this is the weakness of the umbilical ring in combination with the increase in intra-abdominal pressure. This mechanism is universal for all hernias: femoral, inguinal, and white line of the abdomen.

Symptoms of umbilical hernia in adults

What does an umbilical hernia look like? As a rounded protrusion in the navel. Unfortunately, the appearance does not say anything about the contents of the bag and its condition. Previously, before the advent of ultrasound, it was difficult to guess.

Symptoms of umbilical hernia in adults

For example, listening to a hernia with a stethoscope was used. If an intestinal loop got into the bag, and its condition did not cause concern, then the sounds of peristalsis and rumbling were heard. But if the gut was "silent", then this sign could indicate its necrosis.

The symptoms of umbilical hernia in adults with its uncomplicated course are as follows:

  1. A protrusion appears in the umbilical region, first with increasing pressure and then more often. With a horizontal position, the hernia is often reset;
  2. When an increase in pressure occurs (weight lifting, coughing, sneezing, bowel emptying), pains occur that characterize the “squeezing” of the contents through the ring. Patients "with experience" during physical activity wear a special bandage, or even hold the navel with their fingers to prevent an increase in hernia;
  3. As the process progresses, nausea, bitterness in the mouth, increased peristalsis, and rumbling may be troubling. This is due to the fact that the advancement of the food bolus through the small intestine into the zone of the hernial ring, and further difficult.

Treatment of umbilical hernia without surgery

Treatment of umbilical hernia without surgery

If there is an umbilical hernia, what to do? First of all, you need to watch her, not allowing excessive tension of the abdominal muscles.

Wearing a special, well-chosen bandage may prevent the appearance of a hernia, for this purpose a special adhesive tape for umbilical hernia can also be used.

But all these measures are similar to the behavior of a person guarding a barrel of gun powder among the burning candles. As the great connoisseur of the human soul and doctor Anton Pavlovich Chekhov wrote, “if a gun hangs on a wall, then it must fire”. This is what happens with hernia, and not necessarily with the umbilical.

They have the insidious property of becoming complicated and injured at the most inappropriate moment of time: in the forest, on hunting, far from civilization and air ambulance, or from communications.

Therefore, the reduction of a long-existing education is not only useless, but can also be dangerous. Treatment of umbilical hernia in adults without surgery is impossible: the state of "cure" will last until the next trip to the toilet.

Yes, there are special types of hernia, for example, an internal hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, in which, in most cases, conservative treatment is indicated, which is very successful. But there is a special biomechanics of the hernia, and, moreover, there are no symptoms of obstruction, and the infringement is extremely rare. Therefore, the only treatment of the “made and forgotten” type is the removal of the umbilical hernia.

Which doctor to ask for examination and treatment? This should be a polyclinic surgeon who will give referral for hospitalization and surgical treatment.

Operate in any department of "clean" surgery, which is not only in the city, but also in any central regional hospital. The operation of hernia repair refers to the section of abdominal surgery, or abdominal surgery.

About hernia surgery

In fact, so say illiterate people. No "removal" occurs, because there is nothing to remove, except for excess skin and subcutaneous tissue. Intestinal loops are inserted into the abdominal cavity (provided they are fully viable), then the main stage of the operation is carried out - plastic surgery of the hernial ring, that is, strengthening the umbilical ring, and then the excess skin bag is eliminated.

The fact is that the skin for a long time managed to stretch out, and not always she will be able to finish without wrinkles. In any case, a small scar near the navel is completely invisible after surgery.

It is important to understand that it is necessary to operate the umbilical hernia "for cold", that is, among the full health. Of course, this is not very desirable, but necessary.

How to find out that the hernia is stranded, and urgent help is needed?

Complications and signs of hernia injury

Urgently call an ambulance, or you need to go to the nearest surgical hospital yourself if:

  • nausea, vomiting appeared, state of health worsened;
  • the noises of intestinal peristalsis disappeared, there was no stool and the discharge of gas, bloating appeared;
  • the temperature increased, or the pain sharply increased (not only in the umbilical region, but, in general, in the stomach, or in the groin).

Also, a dangerous precursor is considered to be the situation when an education, which was usually easily and independently lying down, stopped doing this.

For obvious reasons, one should not try to do it by force, but call an ambulance and go to the hospital while lying down. If you stand up, you can completely restrict the contents.

It is known that the intestinal loop, in which the mesentery torsion with the adducting artery has arisen, needs resection in a few hours, since it is dying. This causes intestinal obstruction, which in several hours is complicated by peritonitis.

Forecast

With timely treatment to the surgeon in a "planned" manner, the person recovers. As a rule, there is no recurrence, there is no cosmetic defect. The operation does not last long, "do not get into the stomach."

Basically, the surgeon performs all the work, doing the plastic of the umbilical ring. After discharge from the hospital, you can forget about the bandage, and about all the restrictions.

Instead of conclusion

An umbilical hernia in adults, the symptoms and treatment of which we have examined, is considered a “non-serious” operation by doctors. But in the event that the patient neglected the planned hernia repair and got on the operating table already in a state of collapse and shock, with intestinal obstruction, fecal vomiting and diffuse peritonitis, then his chances not only for recovery, but also for survival are rapidly falling.

Therefore, in order not to create problems for yourself - do not listen to those who offer "recovery without surgery." Your health is in your hands.

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