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Psoriasis: the first signs and symptoms, stages and types, treatment

What it is? Psoriasis is a skin disease of a non-infectious nature, so it is impossible for them to become infected. It affects not only the skin, but also has a negative impact on the whole body. It is characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbations and remissions.

The disease is caused by the immune cells of the body, that is, it is an autoimmune disease. Rising from the depths of the skin into the upper layers, these cells provoke inflammation, excessive division of cells in the epidermis, leading to excessive growth, the appearance of new small capillaries.

Outwardly, it looks like the formation of red or purple spots - psoriatic plaques.


The first signs and symptoms of psoriasis, photo

Psoriasis photo, initial stage

Psoriasis photo, initial stage

Since psoriasis is a systemic disease affecting all the systems of the body, the patient suffers from general weakness, rapid fatigue.

The main symptom of the initial stage of psoriasis is psoriatic rashes and plaques, however, it accompanies a person with the further development of the disease.

They arise because of the accelerated uncontrolled division of cells located in the highest layer of the skin - keratinocytes. Defective cells are formed, and the skin in these areas thickens, acquires a red color due to the increased formation of new capillaries. This leads to minor drip bleeding in any, even mild, trauma to the plaques.

The surface of the plaques is often covered with a gray coating like paraffin. Even the term “paraffin lakes” was formed. This plaque consists of dead epithelial cells that accumulate on the surface of plaques due to disruption of the rejection process.

the beginning of the development of psoriasis photo

the beginning of the development of psoriasis photo

Spots can reach quite large sizes, merge with each other. To the touch they are hot, often accompanied by severe itching. Scratching can lead to infection.

Over time, the nails begin to change. Their surface becomes streaked, depressions appear, pink spots are noticeable under the nail plate - accumulation of liquid, the nail turns yellow, thickens, takes on the form of a bird's claw. All this happens due to malnutrition of the nails and blood circulation.

The nail bed is subjected to excessive keratinization, which leads to the rejection of the nail and loss. Often around the nails there is a red, inflamed border.

Affected by the disease and small joints - this is accompanied by pain and inflammation.

psoriasis close up photo

In addition to plaques, with psoriasis papules form on the skin - small (about 1 mm) protruding formations resembling a rash. Often localized on the elbows and knees, persist even during remission.

During improvement, the plaques begin to brighten from the middle, take the form of rings and may disappear altogether. In their place remain pigmented areas.

Psoriasis on the scalp has the same symptoms as on the body. The structure of the hair does not change. Rash cover and adjacent skin - behind the ears, on the neck.

Types of psoriasis

According to the symptoms, the disease is divided into two types: pustular and non-empty. Within these groups there are several varieties of the disease.

Forms of pustular psoriasis:

  • generalized;
  • annuity;
  • palmoplantar (affecting mainly the limbs);
  • palmar and plantar;
  • psoriatic impetigo.

Non-empty psoriasis:

  • ordinary (chronic plaque psoriasis);
  • erythrodermic.

In addition, there are the following types of the disease:

  • Napkin's psoriasis;
  • psoriasis of skin folds and flexor surfaces;
  • seborrheic like;
  • drug.

Forms according to severity:

  • light (affects less than 3% of body surface);
  • medium (affects up to 10% of the body surface);
  • severe (affected more than 10% of surfaces).

Depending on the form of rash, these types of psoriasis are distinguished:

  • dotted;
  • drop-shaped;
  • coin-like.

Stages of psoriasis, symptoms

Stages of psoriasis

the growth of new plaques with the union in the "lake" photo

The first plaques appear on the areas with the most dry skin and are never where the skin is too wet, for example, with armpits. First, the appearance of spots can be seen on the inside of the elbows, under the knees, along the rim of the hair on the head, as well as in places exposed to any injury or friction. The location is usually symmetrical.

There are such stages in the course of the disease:

  • progressive (formation of new spots, growth of existing ones, itching, noticeable peeling);
  • stationary (slowing or stopping the growth of plaques, the absence of newly formed spots);
  • regressing (decrease or absence of peeling, the disappearance of spots and plaques with the appearance of pigmented skin in their place, the signs of psoriasis are almost absent).

There are no special tests for diagnosis. The diagnosis is made on the basis of external signs. One of these signs will be the occurrence of bleeding when scraping plaque, the so-called bloody dew.

Another specific sign of psoriasis is the presence of a pale border around a young papule, not yet covered with scales. This is the vascular reaction of the skin, which means the progression of the disease.

In severe forms of the disease, the blood picture may change. There are signs of an ongoing inflammatory process.
In some cases, you have to do a biopsy to exclude other skin diseases and to confirm the presence of psoriasis.

Effective Psoriasis Treatment

psoriasis treatment

In the treatment of psoriasis, both local and internal remedies are used, as well as physiotherapy and sanatorium-resort treatment.

In the initial mild course of the disease, preparations are used in the form of ointments. At first, ointments and creams of simple composition are used, then proceed to ointments containing hormones. Psoriasis cream should be applied only on plaques and stains.

Psoriasis ointment: a review of hormonal and non-hormonal agents

With moderate and severe disease, internal remedies are used that affect the entire body, but give the best results. This group includes preparations of vitamin A, immunosuppressants, cytotoxic drugs.

Physiotherapy brings tangible relief to patients with psoriasis, can slow down the progression of the disease and sometimes replace the use of certain medications.

Apply UV irradiation (phototherapy), laser, ultrasound and magnetic therapy, hyperthermia sessions, electrosleep, electrophoresis.

Psoriasis is able, over time, to acquire resistance to the applied treatment, therefore it is recommended to change methods from time to time (treatment rotation).

A disease with manifestations on the head is treated in the same way as in other parts of the body with the use of ointments and physiotherapy.

Home treatment for psoriasis

Diet for psoriasis

Nutrition should help to adjust the metabolism and prevent the appearance or exacerbation of skin symptoms. Since virtually all patients have lipid metabolism disorders, preference should be given to products with low fat content.

Special popularity was given to special diets Ogneva, Pagano.

When drafting a diet you should try to follow some simple rules:

  1. Refusal of alcoholic beverages;
  2. Meals up to 6 times a day, little by little;
  3. Exclude from the diet of food fried, smoked;
  4. Reduce the salt content in food;
  5. If possible, do not use products containing dyes, stabilizers and other food additives;
  6. Exclude citrus;
  7. Increase the proportion of vegetables and cereals in the diet;
  8. Mandatory use of vegetable oils.

Compliance with these simple rules will help avoid the exacerbation of psoriasis and independently create a therapeutic diet.


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