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Features of the diet for the treatment of the thyroid gland

Diseases of the thyroid gland are amenable to treatment by various methods of treatment, depending on the severity of the patient's condition: this is both the drug method, traditional medicine, and even surgery. In any case, it is necessary to observe a diet that supports the body against the background of hormonal imbalance caused by thyroid disease.


Thyroid disease

The thyroid gland (thyroid gland) is the main and largest organ of the endocrine system, located in the anterior neck, above the sternum, covering the trachea and larynx. The gland is an unpaired organ, its structure is represented by two different lobes, which are connected by a small isthmus.

thyroid structure

The iron has the shape of a horseshoe with a concavity facing the rear

The leading function of the thyroid gland is the production of biologically active substances for the regulation of processes occurring inside a person. These substances include hormones:

  • thyroxin (T4),
  • triiodothyronine (T3).

These organic compounds control the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates (bju), protein synthesis, tissue development, heart and blood vessels, and the gastrointestinal tract, and are responsible for mental and sexual development. The decrease or increase of thyroid hormones leads to violations of the above functions under their control.

The number of T4 and T3 is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland (TSH) according to the principle of reverse interaction: the higher the TSH, the lower the intensity of the gland and vice versa. The level of TSH is indicative of how the thyroid gland is diagnosed: if its quantity is in order, then the thyroid gland functions without disturbances.

Diseases of the gland can be differentiated by the nature of occurrence:

  • diseases caused by failure of the thyroid gland and, as a consequence, changes in hormonal levels:
    • hyperthyroidism - increased production of gland-producing hormones T3, T4. As a result, a drop in TSH is observed. This may be caused by a bazedovoy disease or autonomy of the thyroid. Symptoms are:
      • trembling hands and whole body
      • irritability,
      • weight loss despite high appetite
      • hypertension,
      • tachycardia,
      • atrial fibrillation
      • sleep disturbance,
      • feeling hot
      • Gastrointestinal disorders in the form of diarrhea,
      • sometimes - damage to the eyes, puseglaziy.
        The woman has symptoms of Graves' disease.

        Diffuse toxic goiter most often it occurs in women aged 20 to 50 years

    • hypothyroidism is a decrease in thyroid function caused by autoimmune thyroiditis (thyroid inflammation). Symptoms:
      • impotence,
      • lethargy,
      • feeling of freezing,
      • obesity,
      • swelling,
      • weak pulse
      • high cholesterol
      • pale skin
      • violation of the digestive tract in the form of constipation,
      • impotence.
        Symptoms of hypothyroidism - facial swelling and obesity

        Unexplained weight gain can be a symptom of hypothyroidism.

  • diseases developing due to changes in thyroid structure:
    • thyroid growth in size (diffuse goiter)
    • endemic goiter - an increase in the size of the thyroid gland as a result of iodine deficiency in the body,
    • the occurrence of nodules in the gland (nodular goiter):
      • malignant nodes,
      • benign nodules,
      • the nodes causing a hyperthyroidism,
      • non-hormone producing nodes.
        Goiter formation

        Problems with the functioning of the thyroid gland cause tissue degeneration and the formation of nodes

    • formation of cysts in the gland.
      Cyst on the thyroid gland

      A thyroid cyst is a nodular cavity of a benign type, filled with a colloidal fluid

In hypothyroidism, iodine is necessary for normal gland function and the production of a sufficient amount of hormones. Iodine in the body comes from the outside when using iodine-containing products. Due to the insufficiency of this trace element, the iron begins to grow, trying to compensate for the small production of hormones, which can result in endemic (iodine-deficient) goiter.

Endemic goiter growth

Endemic goiter - an enlarged thyroid gland that changes the shape of the neck, which develops due to iodine deficiency in people living in areas with iodine deficiency in the environment

Compliance with a diet with a sufficient iodine content - 150 mcg daily - will prevent the hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and the occurrence of nodules. Especially important is the diet during pregnancy and lactation to prevent the development of endemic goiter.

Most - over 90% of the daily need for iodine enters the body due to the human diet.

The goal of a diet that is dominated by iodine-containing products is to reduce the risk of iodine deficiency disorders of the thyroid gland or, if this condition has already developed, to cure this disease. The purpose of the diet for any pathology of the thyroid gland in general is to return the previous balance of hormones to normalize the functioning of the body systems.

Principles of diet for various thyroid diseases

Observing the right diet for treating the endocrine system does not mean at all that uodized salt is added to food. Depending on the medical opinion, a diet is selected to obtain the maximum therapeutic effect, with some states suggesting the complete elimination of iodine intake.

The general principles of diet for all diseases of the thyroid are:

  • split meals five or more times a day for proportional hormone production;
  • eating at the same time;
  • high content of protein products in the diet;
  • use of multivitamin complexes;
  • use for drinking and cooking only filtered clear water with a minimum content of fluorine, adversely affecting the function of the thyroid gland;
  • refusal of alcohol.

Video: useful food to improve the gland

Endemic goiter

Due to the fact that the cause of the growth of endemic goiter is iodine deficiency, the diet is based on the inclusion in the diet of foods containing iodine, and the simultaneous exclusion of plants and foods that provoke or aggravate the increase in thyroid.

According to WHO, about 2 billion people on Earth exist in conditions of iodine deficiency.

Ph.D. Julia Volkova, endocrinologist

Journal "Science and Life" №1, 2015

Daily iodine intake for adults and children

iodine deficiency is especially prevalent in areas remote from the sea

People living near the sea, less common diseases associated with a lack of iodine, because of its ubiquitous location: in the air, soil and food. Seafood is the main natural source of iodine, so patients with diagnosed iodine deficiency always receive a recommendation to include sea fish, algae and seafood in their diet.

In addition, for the assimilation of iodine, the presence of selenium in the body is obligatory; therefore, along with the iodine-containing diet, it is necessary to use foods containing selenium:

  • the same seafood;
  • coarse flour products;
  • cereal products;
  • chicken eggs,
  • mushrooms;
  • vegetables, especially onions and garlic.

In Russia, the norm of need for selenium is 55 µg / day for women, 75 µg / day for men, 10–50 µg / day for children.

Inflammation (thyroiditis) and neoplasms

When thyroiditis and the appearance of tumors in the gland (including malignant tumors), cysts, nodes, avoid eating foods with a high content of iodine, as well as those plants, vegetables and other products that contribute to the growth of goiter.


Insufficient production of thyroid hormones provokes the development of edema and increased cholesterol, slows down the metabolism. In order not to aggravate these manifestations of hypothyroidism, one should adhere to the following principles in the diet:

  • reduced salt intake;
  • eating foods high in tyrosine (fish, meat, dairy products, nuts, bananas, legumes);
  • preference in eating foods with lower calorie content (in general, the nutritional value of the diet of a patient with insufficient thyroid activity should be reduced by about a quarter compared with a healthy person, which will be about 1,800 kcal):
    • reduced fat intake;
    • preference for complex carbohydrates instead of fast ones;
    • increased protein intake.
  • restriction of ingestion of animal products;
  • Avoid high vitamin A and carotene foods (limit but not exclude). The fact is that the assimilation of this substance is impossible with the inadequate functioning of the thyroid, will lead to the accumulation of vitamin A in the body and yellowing of the skin;
  • inclusion in the diet of iodine-containing products;
  • fluid restriction to 1.5 liters. in a day;
  • to prevent constipation eating fresh lactic acid products and fiber.
iodine alcohol solution

When compensating for the lack of iodine in the body, it is strictly forbidden to eat an alcoholic solution of iodine from the pharmacy, even in the amount of a few drops.

Hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis)

The excess performance of thyroid hormones provokes an acceleration of metabolism and, as a consequence, the cost of large amounts of energy, proteins and fats. This explains the following dietary guidelines for patients with hyperthyroidism:

  • increase in daily caloric intake to 3 thousand kcal;
  • use of products containing goiter-like substances: isoflavone and isothiocyanate (cruciferous flowers, soy products, spinach, rutabaga, daikon, etc.);
  • restriction of iodine-containing products and iodized salt;
  • Preference for dairy products with a high content of calcium (fat cottage cheese, cheese, milk);
  • exclusion of products that have a stimulating effect on the nervous system: chocolate, alcohol, spices and herbs, limit tea and coffee;
  • in case of diarrhea, refusal from laxative products, as well as fermentation processes in the intestines (fresh pastry, grapes, fatty fish, etc.)
hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

The goals of the diet in hyperthyroidism are to improve the nutritional status of the body, normalize its nutritional status, increase the body's defenses, strengthen the recovery processes.

Duration of diet

The duration of the diet depends on the severity of thyroid disease, as well as on the individual characteristics of the patient. In general, the restoration of the correct functioning of the thyroid gland is a long-term process, and therefore it will be necessary to stick to the diet for a very long time. To obtain the first results, you should observe the diet set for the first two months of treatment, while to mitigate the adaptation period, a gradual, but daily cancellation of contraindicated products occurs. With a full transition to an appropriate diet, you need to adhere to a meal plan for at least six months, preferably eight months. After this time, you can already talk about the results obtained in the form of the normalization of hormonal balance.

For the maximum effect of therapy, one year diet should be followed. After that, it will be possible to slightly weaken the diet, observing only the fundamental principles.

Features of the diet in women with thyroid pathology

The normal functioning of the thyroid gland is necessary for women not only for a full life, but also for the possibility of conception.

Basic principles:

  • The daily need for iodine should be 150 mcg. An imbalance of hormones significantly affects the appearance, fullness, dryness of the skin, hair density and fertility, which is why diet is so important for the fair sex;
  • the amount of protein consumed should not be changing 1.2 g per kg of weight;
  • in hypothyroidism, it is especially important to count calories, since the female body is more prone to accumulating mass than the male one. Recommended vegetarian diet and raw foods;
  • in hyperthyroidism, particular attention is paid to the drinking regimen (for women after 45 years, the norm is at least 2 liters of water in its pure form) and daily consumption of goiter-like products.

Diet during pregnancy with thyroid pathology

During gestation, as well as during lactation, in order to avoid malformations of the child and the growth of endemic goiter in the mother, an increase in the daily intake of iodine to 200–250 mcg is recommended. Depending on the diagnosis, it is necessary to adhere to the above principles of diet for each individual pathology. The only difference is the increased dose of iodine consumed per day. Pregnant women, as well as patients with hypothyroidism as a whole, can compensate for the deficit with the use of iodized salt, if there is no tendency to edema. For best results, you should follow these rules:

  • buy only the salt, from the moment of extraction of which less than six months has passed. Otherwise, the content of iodine in it will be insufficient;
  • salt must be stored in a tightly closed jar;
  • fill the food with salt only after bringing it to readiness, because during heat treatment the salt loses a significant amount of iodine.
    iodized salt

    One gram of this product contains almost half the daily intake of iodine.

In hyperthyroidism, pregnant women should pay special attention to the consumption of a sufficient amount of calcium to ensure their own body and the formation of the fetal skeleton. It is also recommended to bring the daily calorie content to 3200 kcal due to fast metabolic processes.

Diet in children with thyroid pathology

The rate of iodine in children under two years old is 90 mcg, after 24 months the rate rises to 120 mcg.

The doctor checks the growth of the thyroid gland in a child

The normal functioning of the thyroid gland is directly related to the development and performance of children

The main points that should be paid attention to in children with thyroid abnormalities:

  • in hyperthyroidism:
    • It is important to comply with the consumption of calcium-containing products, because this trace element is especially important for the growing organism, building bones and teeth;
    • for the same reasons, attention is paid to protein products (the norm for children with thyrotoxicosis is 2.0 g of protein per kilogram of weight);
    • total caloric intake should be increased by 20–25%.
  • with hypothyroidism:
    • use iodized salt as a seasoning;
    • if the baby is breastfeeding, use the mixture with a sufficient amount of iodine; when breastfed, the mother should observe an adequate intake of iodine;
    • control of caloric intake, elimination of products with a high content of cholesterol: egg yolks, butter, fatty pork.
  • iodine deficiency goiter:
    • diet therapy in children is relative, iodine-containing and iodinated foods must be consumed. In iodine-deficient regions, prevention of the lack of this trace element is obligatory: in educational institutions, iodized bread, tea, and other products must be supplied to the children's table.

Video: pediatrician Komarovsky about the benefits of iodine for children and pregnant women

Features of the diet in men with thyroid pathology

Despite the fact that thyroid disease is more common in women, men are also at risk for endocrine system pathologies. Both hypo and hyperthyroidism adversely affect health and male fertility.

Features nutrition for men:

  • daily need for iodine - 150 mcg;
  • thyrotoxicosis occurs in men harder, it is necessary to simultaneously follow a diet for the prevention of osteoporosis;
  • daily protein intake - at least 1.5 g per kg of body weight.

Allowed and prohibited products for diseases of the thyroid gland

In case of pathological diseases of the thyroid, there is a general list of products that are recommended for use both in thyroid hypofunction and in hyperthyroidism.

Table: Important Products for Thyroid Disease

Recommended Products Products banned
  • Calcium-rich milk products group:
    • kefir;
    • cottage cheese;
    • ryazhenka;
    • cheese;
    • yogurt;
    • sour milk;
    • airan and others;
  • products containing trace elements for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland, and specifically manganese, selenium, copper and cobalt:
    • salad;
    • root vegetables (turnip, beet);
    • gooseberry;
    • figs;
    • pumpkin and others
  • protein rich foods:
    • hen;
    • beef;
    • a fish;
    • cottage cheese;
    • egg white;
    • dairy products.
  • porridges on water, steamed or cooked traditionally.
  • meat processing products:
    • sausages;
    • sausages;
    • bacon, salted bacon;
    • smoked meat
  • fat meat:
    • pork;
    • mutton;
    • goose.
  • rich, flour products from high-grade flour, confectionery;
  • milk;
  • spicy seasonings and sauce;
  • food high in salt (fast food, canned food, marinades);
  • sugar and products based on it;
  • food cooked by frying and deep-fried;
  • alcoholic beverages (including non-alcoholic beer, sweet wines, especially red, fizzy drinks).

Video: harmful products for thyroid

Also, depending on the type of pathology of the thyroid gland, it is necessary to give preference to those or other types of products that help fight the disease.

List of products recommended for hypothyroidism

Fresh vegetables

A vegetarian diet is recommended for hypothyroidism due to the high content of organic iodine in fresh vegetables and low calorie content.

The basis of the treatment of hypothyroidism is dietheapie to include iodine-containing products in the patient’s daily diet.

Table: Rating Products with Maximum Iodine Content

A place
in the ranking
Product name Iodine content, mg per 100 g
one fish fat 700
2 Cod liver 370
3 sea ​​kale 300
four haddock 245
five salmon 200
6 shrimp 190
7 hake 150
eight salted herring 77
9 apples 70
ten oysters 60
eleven pink salmon 50
12 persimmon 49.7
13 oats 20
14 spinach 20
15 eggs 18

As follows from the table, the best sources of iodine of natural origin are seafood and sea fish, from fruits - apples (along with seeds) and persimmon, from vegetables - spinach, from cereals - oats. Do not forget that in the process of cooking iodine is lost and food should be consumed fresh, you should also season the food with iodized salt after cooking (you must observe the dosage of salt and not try to replace it with all the necessary iodine, because salt provokes stagnant liquid).

Photo Gallery: High Iodine Products

In addition to the above, increases the production of thyroid hormone ginger. Ginger root is also known as a means to stimulate weight loss, prevent the development of intestinal infections and impotence in men.

In relation to sweet dishes, it is better to avoid them or replace them with diet puddings, jellies, jellies. Instead of sugar, preference should be given to honey and bee products. You should also pay attention to coffee - you need to separate hormone therapy and the use of this drink, because it connects the hormones necessary for treatment, making them not digestible.

In addition to food, it is necessary to pay due attention to the consumed liquid - tap water contains fluorine, which reduces the amount of iodine in the body, therefore alkaline mineral water is recommended as a drink.

List of products recommended for hyperthyroidism

In thyrotoxicosis, special attention is paid to goitrogenic products that suppress thyroid hyperfunction and prevent excessive production of hormones.

The main products that have this effect are cruciferous (cauliflower, white cabbage, broccoli), vegetables with a high content of fiber, as well as soybeans and soy products. It is advisable to use vegetables in their raw form, since after heat treatment the products already lose this property due to the destruction of goitrogenic enzymes. That is why raw foods are so helpful for hyperthyroidism. Separately, it is worth noting soybeans and millet - even after cooking, these products do not lose their zobrovochnymi properties.

Coffee affects the production of thyroid hormones, inhibiting their activity. In hyperthyroidism, it is possible to consume no more than three cups of coffee beans per day, so as not to cause over-stimulation of the nervous system.

Broths and infusions of bitterness with gipoterioz are used to stimulate the appetite and set the appropriate calorie for the whole day. It can be decoctions of wormwood, dandelion, calamus, centaury, yarrow, etc.

Photo Gallery: goitre products

Video: hypothyroidism: permitted and non-recommended products

Menu for thyroid disease

Depending on the pathology, there are menus for weight loss (for hypothyroidism, diet number 8) and for maintaining it (for hyperthyroidism).

Table: menu for 5 days with hypo-and hyperthyroidism

Day p / p Diet for hypothyroidism Diet for hyperthyroidism
the first day breakfast: steamed omelette, red caviar sandwich, chamomile tea breakfast: millet porridge on milk, yesterday's bread with butter, coffee
2nd breakfast: oatmeal kissel with berries, oat croutons 2nd breakfast: yogurt 5%, crackers
dinner: vegetable soup, steamed turkey fillet, green leaf tea lunch: fresh cabbage salad, borsch with sour cream, yesterday's bread, cocoa
snack: baked apple with raisins and honey, a glass of ryazhenka lunch: fruit salad, cottage cheese 9%
dinner: sea fish, baked with butter-free potatoes, cocoa dinner: chicken cutlet with potatoes, spinach salad with greens, black tea
second day breakfast: buckwheat porridge with low-fat milk, coffee drink breakfast: soy cheese, croutons, scrambled eggs, coffee with milk
2nd breakfast: apple, ginger tea 2nd breakfast: pancakes with honey, green tea
dinner: risotto with seafood, cucumber and green salad, tea with melissa dinner: pasta with beef liver, cucumber salad, daikon and greens, tea
snack: low fat yogurt, persimmon afternoon snack: oatmeal cookies with candied fruit, coffee
dinner: pumpkin porridge, boiled beetroot salad with cheese, chicory drink dinner: meat zrazy with egg, cabbage stew, fresh turnip salad, juice
third day breakfast: oat cereal with milk, raisin compote breakfast: cheesecakes with sour cream, coffee with milk, banana
2nd breakfast: figs, natural yogurt 2nd breakfast: milk soup with pasta, fruit tea
dinner: mushroom soup, baked chicken fillet, sea kale salad dinner: soup with beef, broccoli salad with linseed oil, cocoa
afternoon tea: herbal tea, prunes snack: fresh vegetable juice, cheese, oatmeal croutons on fructose
dinner: seafood salad, lemon-free water with lemon dinner: bean stew, beef patty, yesterday's bread, tea
day four breakfast: vegetable stew, berry smoothie, mint tea breakfast: oatmeal porridge with linseed oil, yesterday's bread, cheese, tea
2nd breakfast: cottage cheese 3%, apple jelly 2nd breakfast: curd mass with candied fruit, coffee with milk
lunch: steamed haddock, mashed potatoes, compote lunch: wheat cereal with soy meat, vegetable soup with bread crumbs, tea
snack: milk jelly, alkaline mineral water snack: fruit salad with cream, egg cocktail
dinner: vegetable ragout with veal, a glass of fresh kefir dinner: roast of mushrooms and soy meat, spinach salad, jelly
fifth day breakfast: cheesecakes with curd 3%, cocoa breakfast: hard-boiled egg, yesterday's pastries, coffee with cream
2nd breakfast: apple chips, chicory drink 2nd breakfast: yogurt 5%, banana, soy milk
lunch: fish soup, vinaigrette, mineral water lunch: vegetable cream soup, beef stew with greens, black tea
afternoon tea: seaweed salad, one hard-boiled egg, ginger tea Lunch: cottage cheese and rice pudding, dried fruit, green tea
dinner: buckwheat with cod liver, fruit tea dinner: cauliflower salad with vegetable oil, chicken fillet, juice

Recipes for hypothyroidism

The following salads are recommended for thyroid hypofunction due to its low calorie content and high iodine content.

Seaweed Salad

Seaweed Salad with Shrimps and Mussels

The uniqueness of seaweed is that no processing reduces the amount of iodine contained in it


  • sea ​​kale 200 g .;
  • seafood 50 g .;
  • onion 1 pc .;
  • half a lemon;
  • salt iodized to taste.


  1. Seafood (shrimp, octopus, squid) boil until cooked, cleaned. Onions remove the husks and cut into half rings.
  2. Add shrimps and onions to sea cabbage, add salt and sprinkle with lemon juice. Stir the salad.

Apples Baked with Figs

Baked Apples

Baked apples are most suited as a dietary dessert, and figs are rich in beneficial trace elements.


  • green apples 2 pcs .;
  • figs dried 50 g .;
  • Honey 4 tbsp. l


  1. Figs are pre-filled with warm water for a quarter of an hour, then crumbled with a knife.
  2. Apples wash, remove seeds, pierce the skin with a fork in several places, so that it does not burst during baking.
  3. In the middle of the apples lay a fig, put in the oven, wrapping each fruit with foil, and bake for 20 minutes.
  4. Baked apples should be served warm, before getting out of the foil and watering the top with honey.

Prescriptions for hyperthyroidism

The following recipes are good thanks to the use of goitin and protein-enriched foods.

Rice with tofu (soy cheese)

Tofu rice

Tofu cheese is made from soy milk, it is rich in protein and goes with goiter.


  • tofu cheese 80g;
  • rice 100 g .;
  • Broccoli 100g;
  • red pepper 1 pc .;
  • soy sauce and salt to taste.


  1. Boil rice until cooked, salt.
  2. In a skillet, stew vegetables a little, for 5 minutes.
  3. Put vegetables into a deep plate, add diced tofu cheese, season with soy sauce, if necessary, add salt and mix.
  4. To the rice laid out on a plate, add a mix of tofu and vegetables.

Fresh Cabbage and Raisin Salad

A fresh vegetable salad

Cabbage has double benefit in thyrotoxicosis: it is a goiter-stimulating product and prevents constipation as a source of fiber.


  • Red cabbage 1 pc .;
  • white cabbage 1 pc .;
  • carrots 1 pc .;
  • raisins 50g;
  • flaxseed oil 2 tbsp. l .;
  • salt, sugar to taste.


  1. Cabbage and carrots take in the ratio 2: 2: 1 and chop into thin straws.
  2. Raisin pre-steam in hot water for 20 minutes, add to vegetables.
  3. Salad salad, season with butter, add a pinch of sugar and mix. Serve chilled.

Result of diet

Regardless of the pathology, the main result of diet is the normalization of hormonal levels. Along with this come the following results:

  • weight reduction to optimal values;
    Before and after diet therapy

    Properly chosen diet helps the thyroid to work without interruption, maintains the normal weight of the patient, strengthens the heart

  • coordinated work of the heart and blood vessels;
  • improving mood;
  • decrease in nervousness and irritability;
  • increased libido;
  • restoration of childbearing function;
  • improved appearance, attractiveness.

Doctors recommend that you follow a diet for any thyroid disease. Reviews of the final outcome of the diet is always positive, if the diet plan you chose the doctor. Observing all the recommendations, it will be possible to restore thyroid functions without radical cure, for example, surgery.


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