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Measles in adults, its symptoms and treatment methods

Each person faced in his life with any infectious disease. In most cases, such diseases do not bring severe discomfort and are rarely the cause of serious complications. Currently, vaccinations that help the body develop immunity to various disease-causing organisms, including the measles virus, are very common. However, in the 1990s, many people refused this procedure, considering it unsafe, which now leads to outbreaks of this disease among the adult population.

Content

Description of measles in adults

Measles is a very serious infectious disease. It causes its special RNA-virus, highly infectious and easily penetrating into the human body. Even in cold weather, it can travel long distances through the air and infect healthy people. Despite its high contagiousness, it quickly dies due to all sorts of disinfectants.

Every hour in the world, about 15 people die from measles infection, which is approximately 165 thousand people a year. The highest mortality rates are in the countries of Asia and Africa, where the development of medicine is at a very low level. In other countries, the number of diseases was significantly reduced due to routine vaccination.

Measles in adults

A typical symptom of measles is rash on the whole body.

Basically, measles is considered a childhood disease, since it is at a younger age that it is recorded most often. In older people, the disease is the most difficult and is accompanied by severe symptoms. In most cases, after measles, a strong immunity is formed and re-infection occurs very rarely and takes place in a smoothed form. Unlike children, in adult patients, the following features are noted with measles disease:

  • body temperature reaches critical marks of 40.5 ° C;
  • the patient's condition is very severe, requires strict bed rest;
  • the rash is more intense, covering almost the entire surface of the body;
  • recovery takes a longer period than in children;
  • adults are more often hospitalized and treated under the supervision of doctors.

A video about measles in the program of Elena Malysheva “Live healthy!”

Causes and transmission routes

Measles is transmitted by airborne droplets, and it is so easy to get infected with it, that sometimes it is enough to go to the store, which the patient visited an hour ago to catch this infection. It was because of this that prior to the invention of the vaccine, measles could cause whole epidemics, leading to many deaths.

The measles virus penetrates the body through the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, from where it spreads through the blood to the entire body. It reaches the internal organs, settles in them and forms infiltrates, or accumulations of various cellular elements with lymph and blood. Creating a favorable environment for themselves, the virus creates multinucleated giant cells.

Measles virus

The measles virus is highly contagious and is transmitted by airborne droplets.

Symptoms and signs

The disease has characteristic symptoms and it is customary to divide its course into three stages and the incubation period. All patients experience measles in different ways, in some it may resemble SARS and doctors cannot always make a correct diagnosis, in others the disease manifests itself very acutely and has pronounced symptoms.

  1. The incubation period in adulthood can last from one to three weeks. At this time, usually there are no signs of disease, but the person may already be very contagious. In the last days of the incubation period and in the first five days after the appearance of the rash, the patient can pass the infection to another person.
  2. The catarrhal stage is characterized by acute symptoms. Patients have a high temperature up to 40 0 С, they feel weakness, sore throat, appetite decreases. Sleep disappears and people complain of bouts of dry cough, profuse purulent rhinitis, it hurts to look at the bright light, the face swells, emetic urges appear. On examination, doctors note an increase in the lymph nodes, and when listening, hard breathing with wheezing. At this stage, the disease comes in waves. Within a few days, the temperature can sleep and patients often think that recovery is occurring. However, within a day, fever comes on again, sometimes with even greater intensity. On the inner side of the cheeks, white spots with red borders (Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots) are formed. With the most severe course of the patient, convulsions and fainting occur. This stage lasts up to one week.
  3. The stage of rash is characterized by the appearance of various spots on the patient's body, which are called papular - spotted exanthema. First, they are found behind the ears, then begin to cover the head, neck and chest area. Subsequently, the rash covers the whole body and limbs of a person. Also cough and runny nose intensify, eyes watery.
  4. The recovery phase is a recovery period. The temperature gradually decreases, the spots begin to disappear and the patient's condition improves. On the site of rashes, areas with flaky skin and small bruises are formed. Photophobia gradually disappears and patients begin to look at the bright light without pain. After about ten days, full recovery occurs.
Symptoms of measles

Patients have a high fever, rashes all over their body, runny nose and dry cough.

In the case of a light form of measles, the body temperature does not increase to more than 38.5 ° C, and the rash covers only minor areas of the body. There is also an atypical course of the disease, which can often lead to an incorrect diagnosis. It distinguishes several forms that differ in the manifestation of symptoms.

  1. The erased form is usually present in people who have been vaccinated against measles or have had it before. The clinical picture at the same time erased, the disease can be confused with SARS or influenza. The temperature rarely rises above subfebrile marks, sometimes even the spots do not appear.
  2. The haemorrhagic form is quite severe, and many hemorrhages and bleeding in the internal organs are found in patients. Blood is also detected in the urine and feces. All these manifestations are very dangerous and can be fatal, urgent hospitalization is required with constant monitoring of the patient's condition.
  3. The hypertoxic form is also very dangerous, patients suffer from severe intoxication of the body, and internal organs begin to be damaged. Over the course of the disease, this can lead to multiple organ failure and death. It is necessary to urgently hospitalize the patient.

Measles symptoms video

Diagnostics

If the first signs of measles occur, you should call an ambulance. Further inspection is required from an infectious diseases specialist. Usually a diagnosis is made on the basis of the symptoms. However, some patients may prescribe additional research methods.

  1. ELISA - enzyme immunoassay. You can spend it in the initial stages of the disease. This method is quite informative, based on the detection of specific antibodies to the measles virus - immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM). Already a day later, an increased amount of IgM is detected, and approximately on the tenth day of the disease - IgG.
  2. KLA - complete blood count. During measles patients, a decrease in white blood cells is observed, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate increases. If a secondary infection has joined, then leukocytosis is detected with an increased number of neutrophil fractions.
  3. PCR or PCR is very specific and has almost 100% accuracy. During the study, a study of the DNA sequence from material taken from the patient is carried out in order to detect the sequence of genes belonging to the infectious agent.

During the catarrhal stage, measles can be confused with other diseases such as rubella, influenza, whooping cough, scarlet fever, rhinovirus, serum sickness, syphilis, toxic shock syndrome and adenovirus infection. It is possible to differentiate this disease at an early stage from others on the basis of the presence of conjunctivitis, Belsky-Filatov-Koplik spots and general intoxication of the organism.

Treatment of the disease

All patients are assigned bed rest, and in severe cases hospitalization and treatment may be necessary under the supervision of doctors. Since the majority of people with measles develop photophobia, it is worth preserving the organs of vision from direct sunlight, and it is also better not to turn on bright lamps in the room, limited to diffused daylight. Special diets are not prescribed to patients, but the drinking regimen is complied with, which consumes at least two liters of clean drinking water per day. This allows you to speed up the process of recovery and quickly remove toxins accumulated in the body.

Now scientists are actively developing a special drug specifically against the measles virus, currently called ERDRP-0519. He showed positive results in the treatment of animals, but has not yet been tested on humans. It interferes with the replication of viral RNA, which contributes to its destruction.

Video about measles symptoms and treatment

Drugs prescribed by a doctor based on the severity of the disease. At the moment, there are no specialized drugs, therefore, various drugs that support and eliminate unpleasant symptoms are prescribed.

  1. Antibiotics are prescribed for the accession of a secondary infection. They are selected on the basis of the type of pathogen.
  2. Mucolytics are necessary in the presence of dry cough, they contribute to expectoration (Bromhexin, Ambroxol, ACC).
  3. Anti-inflammatory drugs are necessary at high temperature, headache, general intoxication (Paracetamol, Ibuprofen). In the presence of fever, the use of aspirin should be excluded.
  4. Antiviral drugs (Cycloferon, Kagocel, Ingavirin).
  5. Antipruritic agents are prescribed for irritation of the skin (Delaxin).
  6. With a strong cold, take vasoconstrictor drugs (Rinonorm, Vibracil, Tizin).
  7. Disinfectants help to disinfect the oral cavity when the Bielsky-Filatov-Koplika (Chlorhexidine) stains appear.
  8. When pains in the throat are used drugs to relieve inflammation (Ingalipt, Miramistin).
  9. Antihistamines are necessary in case of allergic reactions, edema (Claritin, Cetirizine).
  10. When conjunctivitis appears, levomycetin drops, Tobrex, Albucidum, eye wash with furacilin solution are prescribed.
  11. Anti-measles immunoglobulin at the initial stage of the disease contributes to an easier course of the disease.
  12. Prednisolone and antibiotics are necessary in the formation of measles encephalitis.
  13. Vitamin complexes with a high content of vitamin A, with its daily dose of at least 200,000 units.

Possible consequences and complications

During measles patients, immunity is greatly reduced. This contributes to the secondary infection with other pathogenic microorganisms that easily penetrate into a weakened organism. The following complications may also occur:

  1. Various diseases of ENT organs, such as otitis, sinusitis, laryngitis, stomatitis, angina. Some patients may develop breathing disorders.
  2. When the secondary infection often affects the organs of the respiratory system, develops bronchitis, pneumonia.
  3. The most dangerous complications are secondary lesions of the central nervous system. Patients can develop myelitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis. Inflammation of the brain is accompanied by severe headaches, convulsions, impaired vital functions of the body and often leads to death.
  4. In some cases, an increased load on the liver can lead to hepatitis.
  5. With a secondary infection affecting the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea and enterocolitis may begin.
  6. Pyelonephritis can develop due to the penetration of a bacterial infection into the organs of the urogenital system.
  7. Bleeding due to lesions of blood vessels can be extremely dangerous, leading to a critical reduction in blood pressure, anemia, a decrease in the number of platelets.

Features of the disease during pregnancy

Measles during pregnancy is very dangerous. This can often lead to miscarriage, premature birth, missed abortion, death or fetal developmental disorders. A child may develop defects in the central nervous system, heart disease, and lung disease. Unfortunately, on ultrasound you can not notice these deviations. However, abortion is indicated in extremely rare cases. Also in the early stages, measles can contribute to a violation of the child’s mental abilities, the formation of oligophrenia. If the infection occurred before the birth, then the baby can be born already with the symptoms of this disease; on the mucous membranes and skin, characteristic rashes are detected.

Expectant mothers during the illness are not shown to be vaccinated, but to be given a serum immunoglobulin, which already contains ready-made antibodies against the measles virus.

Measles during pregnancy

Modern methods of treatment can reduce the number of complications in pregnant women to a minimum

Prevention

Since measles in adulthood is carried by people especially hard, then if the vaccine was not given in childhood, you should think about it now. First of all, it will significantly reduce the risk of catching this unpleasant disease, and even if a person gets sick, the symptoms and course of the disease will be much milder. The chance of serious complications is also significantly reduced. The use of a special vaccine allows the body to artificially develop immunity against measles for about ten, and sometimes even twenty years. This procedure is especially relevant for employees of preschool and school institutions and hospitals. There are certain contraindications for which this vaccine is not administered:

  • during pregnancy and lactation, vaccinations with live microorganisms are prohibited;
  • recent blood transfusions;
  • treatment with drugs that reduce immunity;
  • routine or emergency immunizations.

Most often, patients are advised to use the MMR combination vaccine, which works against measles, rubella and mumps. The first vaccination is usually done even in the preschool years, there is a special strictly regulated schedule. When planning a pregnancy, it is worth being very attentive, you can vaccinate no later than one month before the planned date of conception.

Vaccinations

Measles vaccination is recommended for all people without exception and helps reduce the number of diseases.

Some patients may develop various complications after vaccination. Most often there is a fever, cough, small rashes, runny nose.

When treating a patient at home, close people need to limit communication with him, wear special protective masks and conduct daily ventilation of the premises. It is best to place the patient in a separate room and be sure to provide him with personal dishes, towels and toiletries. Remember that any contact with people can lead to infection.

Videos about vaccinations against measles and epidemics of the disease on the channel Russia 1

Treatment reviews

My child had been developing well until a year. Measles were given us a year. Paratite. We had a temperature of 40 months a month. Conjunctiv started. Then we went to the hospital and there was a rash. Our precinct did not recognize that these were reactions to measles. that there was no reaction. in the end, after that, we began to regress our abilities. I stopped speaking at all. only mumbled. I stopped listening to books. We have also been treated for a long time in Moscow. The doctor put us bruise onsetphalitis. ZPR and for a long time did not remove autism. I am forced to do but I won't. I'm too scary

Katya

http://www.woman.ru/kids/healthy/article/149610/comments/2/

But the niece was sick. I don’t know if they didn’t have a measles vaccine at all. It is not known where she took. But they say this disease is very contagious. That is, even if a sick person visited the store of some kind, then even (!) After 2 hours, once in the same store, you can become infected. The girl (6 years old) was very sluggish, weeping, almost did not eat anything. My throat was sore, and the usual symptoms were a cold (cough was dry, runny nose, trembling). The eyes were red. The temperature was almost 40, they could not bring down anything at all. They called an ambulance, they said nothing at first. Have made an injection. They said to wait, contact in a couple of days. But measles was suspected. On the second or third day, grayish-white specks appeared on the mucous membrane of the mouth (which was already all red), it was already clear that it was measles. Then there was a new rise in temperature to 40 degrees, a rash behind the ears, then on the face and neck. Then the torso, arms, legs. In general, pleasant enough. The temperature stayed for 3 days. Then it began to decrease. Cough increased. The nephew's all gone. BUT, there are complications that are strong because of measles, so you need to be careful with this (from pneumonia and otitis to mental retardation). Not actually treated. Vitamin A was given, diet followed, rest. Thank God, it did not come to complications.

Valera Orlov

http://www.medkrug.ru/community/show_thread/570?thread=6990

My daughter was vaccinated, but this fall was ill, hidden form. Everything looked like ODS - runny nose, cough, rash was one day and not strong, quickly passed. I thought allergic to cough syrup. And no one would have known that this is measles, if after the illness she did not begin to have speech disorders, attention, she became some kind of strange, does not want to practice in the kindergarten, is constantly irritated, sometimes carries such nonsense that you wonder. I reread a bunch of publications, I decided to donate blood to everything that could cause such mental disorders. The result is nothing, but measles antibodies are outrageous, and a complete blood count shows the presence of some kind of infection even now ...

Natala Dudina

http://www.medkrug.ru/community/show_thread/570?thread=6990

measles, in principle, as a viral disease, symptomatic cough-for cough, fever-depressing temperature is treated ... But my rash went on the 5th day (in principle, the bark does not have a rash immediately) and when measles has a very high temperature, I had 40 for three days they could not even bring down to 38.5 .... the horror was a terrible disease, but our doctors did not diagnose measles ...: ((((

Masik

https://deti.mail.ru/forum/zdorove/detskoe_zdorove/kor_ili_ne_kor_vot_v_chem_vopros/?page=4

Measles is a serious and quite dangerous viral disease that affects people of all ages. High contagiousness contributes to the rapid spread of infection among the population. You can counter this disease by using a special vaccine that will help develop artificial immunity to measles. Watch your health, carry out preventive measures and visit doctors in time.

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