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Rubella Vaccination: Is Vaccination Needed?

As is known, at present the patient can voluntarily agree to vaccination from one or another disease or refuse it. Unfortunately, many opponents do not understand the importance of this procedure. Having taken root, a person protects himself from many serious infections and complications developing on their background. Much attention has received rubella vaccination. There are many disputes and myths about the need for vaccination against this disease. And yet, most experts, despite the fact that the virus itself is not dangerous for the life of its "owner", are of the opinion that it is necessary to conduct specific prophylaxis.

Content

The need to prevent rubella

About rubella, probably, we all heard from childhood. This is a widespread acute infectious nature of the disease, with airborne transmission from person to person, penetrating the body through the introduction into the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. It is believed that mostly they are sick children. But statistics says that both children and adults are subject to it to the same extent.

Baby with rubella

Children suffer rubella more easily than adults

The pathology of a small red papular rash, moderately high body temperature, which rarely exceeds 39 degrees, and generalized lymphadenopathy, that is, an increase in lymph nodes at different points in the body, manifests itself. As a rule, the infection occurs in outbreaks, occurring in large groups (kindergartens, schools, barracks, and so on). After the disease is transferred, a sufficiently stable immunity is formed that protects against reinfection. Although there are cases of infection a second time, but this is rather the exception.

Children

Rubella spreads quickly in tight groups (kindergartens, schools, etc.)

Rubella infection is especially dangerous for women who are carrying a baby, especially in the first trimester. If the infection occurred during this period, then the question of abortion, that is, abortion, is raised. This is due to the fact that the virus contributes to the formation of severe developmental abnormalities in the fetus, and in later periods its death is possible. If the baby is born, then there is a high probability (up to eighty-five percent) that he will have the so-called congenital rubella, manifested in the triad of developmental anomalies, namely blindness (cataract), deafness and heart disease. Therefore, when planning a pregnancy, a woman should take care in advance about protecting herself and her unborn child from rubella and its consequences, for which she needs to be vaccinated, if this has not been done before. In this regard, the question is raised about the mandatory and timely vaccination of girls.

Pregnant woman

Rubella virus is especially dangerous for a pregnant woman

Experts disagree on the need for vaccination of boys. Some people consider this an additional and absolutely unnecessary load on the body, while others argue that it is extremely necessary. On the one hand, rubella itself is a disease that is easily tolerated in childhood with the development of strong immunity after recovery, on the other hand, there is a danger of infection of others. As mentioned above, the disease is dangerous for pregnant women, or rather, for the unborn child. For example, situations in which there is an unvaccinated child (not necessarily a male) who suffers from rubella and is pregnant (mother, aunt, sister, etc.) or husband (father, uncle, brother, etc.) are extremely undesirable. A woman who is in a position becomes infected.

A boy gets a shot in the shoulder

In order to prevent the occurrence of rubella in the boy and further infection of all family members, it is advisable to vaccinate him according to the vaccination schedule.

An adult body is much harder to cope with the disease: the disease contributes to the development of many complications (arthritis, encephalitis, thrombocytopenia, and others).

In addition, it should be noted that recovering from rubella releases insignificant amounts of the virus into the environment for fifty to sixty days after recovery, and therefore it remains potentially dangerous to others. Therefore, in order to avoid mass infection, the question of the importance of early vaccination against infection is raised.

Even if a person becomes infected with rubella after vaccination, the infection is much easier (some even do not notice that they are sick) and without the development of complications.

Elena Malysheva talks about rubella and vaccination from her - video

Vaccination in children and adults

Rubella vaccination is included in the National Immunization Schedule, which is approved by order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. The procedure is carried out free of charge to all categories of citizens in accordance with the compulsory health insurance program.

National vaccination calendar

Rubella vaccination is on the National Immunization Calendar

According to the calendar, the first vaccination is given to babies at the age of twelve months, together with the vaccine against mumps and measles (CCP). Due to the fact that after it, not all children develop immunity, they are re-vaccinated (or rather revaccination) at the age of six before moving from kindergarten to school. The second revaccination occurs at the age of fourteen and affects only girls. If for some reason the vaccine has not been supplied, it is necessary not to delay it and make it at the first convenient opportunity.

Special attention is paid to girls and women of reproductive age (from eighteen to forty years old) who are planning a pregnancy. During the period of childbearing, immunization is possible only until the sixth week of gestation. Until that time, it is believed that the vaccine will not have a negative impact on the embryo, while the opposite is noted only in half of the percent of cases. During other periods of pregnancy, vaccination is strictly contraindicated, as a weakened virus with a blood stream can penetrate the placental barrier and hit the fetus.

Pregnant

If a woman did not have time to become vaccinated before the onset of pregnancy, it is advisable to do this before the sixth week of gestation.

If there are no health problems in a child or an adult, then special preparation is not required before vaccination. Nevertheless, there are a number of recommendations that help reduce the risk of adverse reactions in the body in response to vaccine administration. Unfortunately, in many medical institutions this is not told to patients. So, what you need to know:

  • If you are prone to allergic reactions of various types, you should start taking antihistamines two or three days before the vaccine is given. Over the next two to three days, their use is also advisable.
  • Suspend for 2–5 days the administration of preparations containing vitamin D. The treatment should be restored no earlier than the fifth day after vaccination.
  • Ten days before immunization to people who are often ill, it is recommended to receive fortifying agents that increase the body's immune strength.
  • Undesirable before inoculation dense food intake.

Before vaccination, it is necessary to pass tests. The total blood count is important to exclude any diseases, as well as a blood test for rubella antibody titer, if these are not found or are in minimal quantities, vaccination is carried out in full.

Duration of action (protection) of vaccination is individual for each person. Someone after the introduction of one vaccine becomes protected for a long time, someone has to be vaccinated according to the schedule. To find out if there is immunity from rubella, it is enough to pass the test for antibodies to infection. If they are present, the vaccine has not yet completed its action, and if they are absent, it is time to re-inculcate. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends revaccination every ten years to fully protect against the disease.

Twelve-month kiddling inoculated in the leg. At an older age, the injection is performed in the shoulder region.

There are two types of rubella vaccines:

  1. Single component. Contains in its composition only the rubella virus, which has been weakened by exposure to certain chemicals. In most cases, this vaccine is administered with repeated revaccination and adults.
  2. Three-component. This polyvalent vaccine contains three attenuated viruses: mumps, measles and rubella. Such a vaccination is transferred much more easily, almost imperceptibly, than a single component one. It is put only for the first time at the age of twelve months and at the age of six with revaccination.
Vials and Syringe

There are two types of rubella vaccine: one-component and three-component

It should be noted that the vaccine, though weak, but alive. Therefore, the vaccinated person suffers from rubella to a slight degree. To say that it is contagious to others is not entirely correct, because until now, experts have not come to a final conclusion, whether it is so or not. Nevertheless, doctors advise to limit contact with him for five days, especially for unvaccinated and previously ill women who are in the position.

Contraindications

As with any manipulation, setting up a rubella vaccine has a number of relative and absolute contraindications.

Absolute contraindications suggest that a child or an adult should not be given rubella vaccination under any circumstances. These include:

  • malignant diseases;
  • immunodeficiency syndrome;
  • serious complications after a previous vaccination;
  • severe allergic manifestations.
Boy with angioedema

For severe allergic reactions to the first rubella vaccine, for example, in the form of Quincke's edema, you should refuse revaccination.

Relative contraindications are temporary. This means that in the event of favorable circumstances, vaccination is carried out, albeit with a deviation from the schedule. Vaccination may be delayed:

  • during pregnancy;
  • during exacerbation of chronic processes in the body;
  • in inflammatory diseases, infections (both viral and bacterial);
  • during teething in babies, accompanied by a rise in body temperature;
  • during treatment with agents from the pharmacological group of immunosuppressors.
A man with a glass in his hand looking at a plate of pills

In the period of temporary weakening of immunity (cold, exacerbation of chronic diseases and so on) should be postponed with vaccination.

Vaccine production is carried out two weeks after recovery. In the case of chronic diseases - the procedure is carried out exclusively in the remission period, when the acute manifestations of the disease subside.

Possible side effects of vaccination

As a rule, adverse body reactions in response to rubella vaccination occur in childhood. In most cases, the child apparently does not react to the vaccine. Adults usually do not notice any changes in their state of health. However, everyone should know what the consequences may be after vaccination. The most frequently noted are:

  • redness and compaction of the injection area;
  • increased body temperature (sometimes can reach forty degrees);
  • dizziness;
  • headaches;
  • isolated manifestations of vomiting or diarrhea;
  • runny nose;
  • sore throat and cough;
  • thrombocytopenia (decrease in the level of platelets in the blood);
  • the appearance of a red rash in certain areas of the body;
  • an increase in lymph nodes (mainly cervical and parotid), as well as their pain;
  • excessive sweating;
  • general weakness.

With a normal immune response, all these manifestations disappear on their own within three to four days. This is considered a normal reaction, indicating the correct production of antibodies to the disease.

Girl with a thermometer in her mouth puts a bubble with ice to her head

Increased body temperature is a normal reaction of the body to vaccination.

Precautionary measures

After the vaccine is set, certain precautions should be taken to avoid complications:

  • on the day of vaccination you can not take a shower and bathe the baby;
  • in the first few days (from two to five) it is undesirable to be in places of large concentrations of people (in children's clinics it is advised not to take the child outside for two days);
  • if the child goes to the garden, if possible try to sit with him at home for four to five days;
  • not to introduce into the diet (applies to both adults and children) new products, especially those that can lead to the development of an allergic reaction;
  • increase fluid intake (preferably water);
  • Adults must stop taking alcoholic beverages for six to seven days.

Dr. Myasnikov talks about measles and rubella vaccination - video

Everyone voluntarily decides whether to inoculate him against any infection or not. Despite many debates about rubella vaccination, it must be said that it is important and necessary. It was after the introduction of mass immunization that humanity, if not completely got rid of many dangerous diseases, so significantly reduced their appearance.

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