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Measles vaccination: real opportunities to avoid disease

Thanks to modern vaccination against many diseases, we almost forgot about measles, rubella, parotitis. Now young parents will learn about some ailments from booklets or the Internet. Measles are remembered only when an epidemic outbreak of the disease occurs somewhere. Experts believe that vaccination is the main method of preventing this serious pathology.

Content

Measles: danger to life

It has been established that measles is an acute infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract, which has not only catarrhal symptoms . In parallel, specific eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes appear.

Scientists believe that if vaccination of the population against measles was carried out in every country in a timely manner, then this disease was forgotten forever after 10 years. However, due to some illiteracy and religious prejudices of people, for reasons of low funding in underdeveloped countries, this can only be dreamed of.

Measles is a terrible disease, not a banal infection, which initially proceeds without any particular signs, until the incubation period passes into the next stage.

Measles in a child

Measles is a dangerous disease that can cause serious complications.

Infection can cause:

  • diseases of the nervous system;
  • brain inflammation;
  • chronic otitis with the development of deafness;
  • lung abscess;
  • severe pneumonia;
  • pleurisy;
  • laryngeal stenosis;
  • pyelonephritis;
  • loss of vision and hearing;
  • diseases of the cardiovascular system;
  • Nomu (facial oncology).
Sick child

A distinctive feature of the disease are spots - an important diagnostic feature

The optimal time of year for a measles epidemic is the last weeks of spring and the first days of summer.

According to the WHO, every hour 15 people die from this infection on the planet (this is about 900 thousand annually). The highest mortality is observed in Asia and Africa.

Outbreaks of illness occur in periods, usually every 8–10 years. The exception to this is an “imported” infection. Most often, measles epidemics occur in closed children's educational and preschool institutions, where there are people susceptible to the disease.

Until 1966, when measures of mass prophylaxis and vaccination were developed, every fourth child died of infection in Russia. During this period, measles began to be called childhood plague.

The susceptibility to the virus is very high:

  • during the first days after direct contact with the patient, about 40% of people become infected;
  • with a three-day conversation with a person infected with measles, more than 80% fall ill.

All this is subject to the absence of surrounding vaccinations against measles! If earlier the infection affected the body of children aged 1 to 5 years, now the ailment is very “aged”. There are outbreaks of the disease among the adult population. At the same time, the likelihood of serious complications is very high. All these facts are important arguments in favor of measles vaccination.

<br /> Respiratory discomfort in a patient with stenosis of the larynx of measles

Measles can cause laryngeal stenosis.

Immune prevention: a vital necessity

So far, no effective treatment methods have been developed for this ailment . Only carrying out mass immunization activities can prevent the occurrence of foci of infection.

Measles vaccination is considered in our country a planned procedure, accompanied by filling out a special vaccination card instituted for each child.

Full guarantee to avoid infection does not exist. However, people vaccinated against measles in childhood suffer mild illness without any further possible complications. This is due to the development of immunity to the virus after vaccination.

If the risk of measles in unvaccinated people is 100%, then after vaccination the possibility of infection is reduced to 0.5%. In this case, the disease proceeds atypically, without risk to life.

Vaccination is carried out in several stages.

  1. After the first vaccination, the risk of infection is reduced to 15%.
  2. After revaccination, the probability of infection over the next 15–20 years is reduced to zero. That is, there is almost 100% body protection.
  3. The third stage of measles vaccination takes place at a mature age.
Baby booster against measles

At 5–6 years old, they are re-immunized against measles.

If a person has had measles, then he automatically becomes immune to the infection . Re-infection can occur only in 1% of cases for a number of objective reasons, for example, the presence of immunodeficiency in a patient. Accordingly, if a person has had measles, the vaccine is not given. This must be documented confirmation.

Vaccination against measles begins in early childhood. It is carried out in 2 stages, since not all people have immunity formed immediately after the first vaccination.

In the vaccination calendar of the Russian Federation, which lists all schedules for the planned implementation of active immunization, measles vaccination runs in parallel with vaccinations against other infections: rubella, hepatitis and mumps. There is nothing to worry about, because the child’s immune system is able to withstand the multiple attacks of various viruses. It is established that the degree of manifestation of side effects when combining several vaccines does not increase.

Simultaneous vaccination of several infections allows you to combine costs and time for preventive measures. Combined multi-phase drug - this is the minimum stress in a small patient.

Active immunization is a key part of preventive work, which is aimed at combating infectious diseases. The principle of vaccination - the introduction into the body of living, but weak viral strains. The vaccine infection is weakened to a minimum and does not pose any threat to the patient and his environment.

After vaccination, the human body produces a weak immune response, although even it is enough to fully protect against infection.

Types of immune drugs: monovaccine, comprehensive vaccine against measles, rubella, parotitis

In our country, several types of vaccines from different manufacturers are used:

  • monocomponent (or monovalent):
    • one-component measles live freeze-dried vaccine from a Russian manufacturer;
    • Ruvax monovaccine, made in France by Aventis Pasteu;
    • measles-based single-component vaccine, created at the Serum Institute in India;
  • combined (or polyvalent):
    • divorcine parotid-measles cultural live, made in the Russian Federation;
    • Indian triple vaccine against parotitis, measles and rubella;
    • Combined rubella, parotitis and measles vaccine Priorix, produced by GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium;
    • the triple vaccine Trimovax, produced in France;
    • MMR trivaccine from Merk Sharp & Dohme Idea from Holland.

As a rule, in public medical institutions use low-cost types of vaccinations: single-component vaccines of Russian manufacturers. Combined vaccination is offered on a fee basis.

Measles vaccine

Priorix is ​​one of the popular combination vaccines.

Comparative characteristics of domestic and imported drugs, including Indian

Before choosing a drug for immunization, it is worth consulting with a specialist doctor, because each vaccine has its own advantages and disadvantages:

  1. After vaccination with monovaccine complications manifest themselves extremely rarely.
  2. Combination vaccine does not require multiple vaccinations: one injection is enough.
  3. The efficacy of monovalent and polyvalent vaccines is equivalent in the fight against the disease. All of them are able to replace each other without negative consequences for patients.
  4. The shelf life of dry drugs is higher than that of finished vaccines.
  5. The possibility of subsequent complications (reactogenicity) of combined vaccines is not higher than that of single-component vaccines.
  6. The differences between the numerous types of vaccines are minor.
  7. The site of administration of measles monovaccines is determined (subcutaneously in the area of ​​the scapula or shoulder). Imported multicomponent vaccinations can be given under the skin or intramuscularly at any convenient location.
  8. Simultaneous administration of several monovalent vaccines requires the use of separate syringes. Moreover, each injection is done in different parts of the body. Combination vaccines are a single injection.

Immunization of the population against measles occurs according to a specific pattern in accordance with the vaccination schedule of the Ministry of Health. Parents may refuse these activities, but such actions are fraught with further consequences in relation to the health of the child.

Vaccination in childhood

Before starting a vaccination, your baby should be examined by a pediatrician to detect the presence or absence of any ailments. To do this, conduct a series of studies and analyzes. Based on the results, the health status of the patient is evaluated.

Children with allergies are usually prescribed a small course of antihistamines before and after vaccinations.

Child

It is happiness when your child is healthy

If the child is often sick, one week before the vaccination, they are treated with interferon to raise the immunity. Finish it 14 days after vaccination.

On the eve of the first vaccination, parents should minimize the contact of their child with someone. It is necessary to protect the baby from accidental hypothermia, stress and changes in climatic conditions.

Vaccinations do not make sick people!

Stages of formation of specific immunity, including revaccination

Planned measles vaccination includes 2 stages:

  1. Vaccination of children aged 8 to 15 months, depending on individual factors and epidemic conditions in the region of the country.
  2. Revaccination takes place in five years, on the eve of the admission of the child to school. It provides almost 100% protection against measles and helps to achieve a positive immune response to the disease, if at the initial stage this has not happened.

Low doses of drugs are not always able to help the body from the first time to develop specific antibodies that form the immune system.

Stages of vaccination: vaccinating a child against measles at an early age

The first measles vaccine is done on babies as young as one.

If the baby has had measles before the start of vaccination activities, then the vaccine is not being given. In the event that the mother of the child does not have antibodies to the infection, the baby will be additionally immunized at the age of 6–8 months.

Sometimes a measles vaccine is set aside for a period of time. This may be due to the fact that for various reasons, other planned vaccinations are not completed.

As an unplanned passive immunization when an unvaccinated newborn comes in contact with a person with measles, use:

  • immunoglobulin, if the child is not half a year old;
  • live measles vaccine, provided the baby is older than 6 months.

All this is desirable to do in the shortest possible time to avoid infection.

Adverse reactions, including rash, fever

After immunization, a small patient may experience some discomfort:

  • specific rash at the site of vaccine introduction;
  • a short sharp rise in body temperature up to 40 degrees;
  • conjunctivitis;
  • febrile seizures;
  • runny nose

The possibility of side effects is not more than 15%. The reaction may occur in the first three days after vaccination.

The appearance of a cold after vaccination in girls

A runny nose may occur after vaccination.

Complications, including vaccine-associated

In cases where, after vaccination, there are manifestations of some complications, carry out the following activities:

  1. To cope with a temperature jump, use antipyretic and antihistamine medicines, which are prescribed by the doctor.
  2. In the event of a severe allergic reaction to vaccination, inpatient treatment using corticosteroids is used.
  3. Antibiotics will work fine with bacterial complications.

The child is not considered infectious to others, regardless of the presence and severity of adverse reactions to the vaccine.

It is extremely rare (1 case per 40 thousand) the effects of vaccinations are:

  • thrombocytopenia;
  • toxic shock.

Dr. Komarovsky on measles vaccination: video

Active immunization of adults

Measles should not be considered just a childhood disease. For adults, this pathology is much more dangerous than for children. If a person did not vaccinate against this disease in childhood and did not get sick with it at an early age, then vaccination is simply necessary.

Formation of intense immunity

Depending on the individual characteristics of the human body, immunity to disease is formed. The protection period for antibody production after vaccination is from 10 to 20 years. After this time, additional stimulation of immunity is required. Teenagers from 15 to 17 years old in schools conduct mass revaccination.

In adulthood, when people reach the age of 35, another measles vaccine is recommended. This is due to the unfavorable epidemiological situation in Russia due to the large number of migrants from eastern and African countries, where the government at the state level does not control the planned active immunization of the population.

Preparatory actions before vaccination

You can get a measles vaccine for free at a community clinic. To do this, it is enough to make an appointment with a doctor, get a blood test for antibodies and get a referral. In addition to the municipal medical institution, special vaccination centers and accredited clinics deal with this.

It is required to pass the test for measles immunity. Examine subject to venous blood of the patient. This event will help identify the presence of antibodies and confirm or deny the feasibility of revaccination in adulthood.

Immunization in adulthood

There is no age limit for vaccination.

If desired, measles vaccination can be repeated in 10–20 years, but in this case the vaccine will not be free. Such a procedure is not prohibited and does not require any additional permissions. Vaccination at this age is practically safe, if there are no strict contraindications.

Complications in the absence of intense immunity

Unjustifiably refusing immunization, it is necessary to remember about the possibility of dangerous consequences. Against the background of this disease, transferred in adulthood, can develop:

  • myocarditis;
  • damage to the cornea;
  • glomerulonephritis;
  • deafness.

Delayed vaccination or lack of it - a guarantee of measles. In old age, measles often leads to death.

When planning long-distance trips abroad to southern countries, additional vaccination must be taken 30 days before departure.

Measles Vaccination and Pregnancy

Revaccination is gentle. It is practically safe, as it contains the minimum number of strains. But during pregnancy it is better not to risk the health of the unborn child.

If a decision is made about the birth of a baby, then it is better to vaccinate 6 months before the planned pregnancy.

In cases where the pregnancy came "unexpectedly", and the vaccine was made in the early stages, 2 solutions to the problem are considered:

  1. If vaccination was performed with a combination drug, it is recommended to terminate the pregnancy. It is established that even a weak rubella virus in 50% of cases leads to the defeat of the fetus.
  2. The monocomponent vaccine is less dangerous, and the probability of development of pathology in the fetus is no more than 20%. It is possible to leave the child.

If a woman wants to preserve a pregnancy, it is necessary to get tested for antibodies and ultrasound screening. It may be necessary to pass biochemical blood tests. If abnormal development of the embryo is detected, abortion is proposed.

Sometimes (in case of emergency) doctors recommend using immunoglobulin preparations instead of measles vaccination.

Vaccination can be carried out immediately after the baby is born, even if the mother is breastfeeding. Vaccine virus does not penetrate into breast milk and is not transmitted to the newborn.

Pregnancy and vaccinations: video

Contraindications to vaccination: allergies, oncology, exhaustion

There are a number of contraindications for measles vaccination activities. Priority among them are the following states:

  • allergic reactions to vaccine components:
    • aminoglycosides;
    • antibiotics;
    • protein of chicken and quail eggs.
  • oncological diseases, including those accompanied by wasting;
  • severe reaction to primary vaccination;
  • primary immunodeficiency.

In addition, there are time constraints under which measles vaccination is transferred to a later date:

  • exacerbation of chronic diseases;
  • SARS and ARI development;
  • taking prescribed medications;
  • recent blood transfusions;
  • allergy exacerbation period;
  • the introduction of immunoglobulin.

Precautionary measures

When carrying out vaccination activities in the subsequent period, it is necessary to observe certain restrictions and precautions.

You should carefully monitor the state of health after vaccination. If any abnormalities are present for more than 10 days, you must contact your doctor.

Healthy baby

After vaccination, it is necessary to monitor the health of your baby.

In order to reduce the negative effects of vaccination to zero, it is necessary to observe certain safety measures:

  • limit the use of new dishes in order not to provoke an allergic reaction and / or food poisoning;
  • refuse to visit crowded places in the first three days after vaccination;
  • use a medical mask when visiting crowded places and using public transport;
  • Immediately after vaccination, you can not take a bath and rub the injection site;
  • Adults should stop drinking alcohol completely for 1-2 weeks, as this can cause an allergic reaction.

It is not necessary in the first days after vaccination to take any drugs yourself, even if it is an immunomodulator, for example, Isoprinosine. Although if a person suffers from frequent colds and has a low level of immunity, the doctor may prescribe the appropriate therapy. It is proved that the correct selection of treatment regimens allows you to get a quick full response to vaccination in patients suffering from various pathologies.

How to protect yourself and children from measles: video

Vaccination against measles is vital, as a person becomes protected from serious illness. Widespread immunization helps to reduce not only the number of cases of measles, but also reduce the mortality rate from this pathology. Vaccination is a real preventive measure aimed at helping people fight a serious virus.

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