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Causes of dark color of urine in men and women, especially in pregnancy

Changing the color of urine is an easily identifiable symptom that can indicate the development of the disease in the body. But, sometimes - it can be the result of taking some medicines or consuming brightly colored foods.

In the latter case, it is simple enough to find out by asking the patient, and in the rest - a more detailed examination is required. The diagnostic search program is formed taking into account the existing shade of urine, which allows to assume the most probable factor.

Content

Causes of dark urine in men and women

Causes of dark color of urine

Causes of dark color of urine can be very diverse and the nature determines one or another shade. In most cases, the pathological changes in urine in men and women are the same, except for specific cases of disorders in the work of genital organs or injuries. And, of course - the period of pregnancy in women.

We shall dwell on these features separately-first, let us consider general factors that are not gender-dependent.

The reason for the dark brown color of urine lies in the destruction of erythrocytes (hemolysis), in which a large number of urobilins are formed from hemoglobin. They give a characteristic shade.

Hemolysis can develop as a result of hereditary or acquired factors. Hereditary factors are anomalies in the structure of hemoglobin or membranes (membranes) of erythrocytes.

These features cause an increased deformation of red cells, as a result of which they break down in the vascular bed, causing the subsequent release of hemoglobin from them.

Such events develop if a person has some hereditary diseases:

  • sickle cell anemia (erythrocytes have the shape of a sickle);
  • spherocytosis, acanthocytosis, etc.
  • thalassemia (change in the number of hemoglobin chains in 1 erythrocyte);
  • Enzymopathy (enzyme defects that cause a shortening of the life of red blood cells).

The causes of acquired hemolysis can be:

  • autoimmune anemia (destruction of red cells due to their damage by antibodies);
  • mechanical trauma of erythrocytes with physical activity (march hemoglobinuria);
  • malaria (malarial plasmodium directly initiates the death of blood cells);
  • toxic substances of hemolytic action;
  • acute infections;
  • increasing the function of the spleen, which normally destroys the red blood cells.

Dark yellow urine usually indicates conditions of dehydration or fluid exit states in the intercellular space, in which the concentration of urochromes (substances that impart urine yellow) increases in it. This mechanism takes place when:

  • edematous syndrome;
  • burns;
  • vomiting;
  • diarrhea.

The intake of vitamins from group B or Furagina (a drug for the treatment of infections of the kidneys and bladder) causes the appearance of urine yellow-orange color. To restore normal staining, it is sufficient to cancel the use of a pharmacological agent.

Dark red urine indicates the presence in it of certain substances of exogenous (external) origin. They usually appear due to:

  • reception of sulfonamides;
  • reception of Metronidazole;
  • taking drugs based on bearberry (most often used to treat urinary infections);
  • poisoning with phenol-containing substances.

Phenol surrounds us everywhere. This poison can be found in furniture (in fiberboard and particleboard, reception of its allocation increases with increasing ambient temperature), carpets, toys, clothing, building materials, cosmetics and household chemicals. In food, it is also present.

Especially a lot of it in liquid smoke, used as a substitute for smoking. Fruits and vegetables can also contain phenol. it is used for processing in order to prevent rotting processes. Therefore, it is recommended to wash them thoroughly (especially those that are not collected in season).

In some cases, urine may turn black. The reasons for this may be:

  • night hemoglobinuria (usually the main cause of dark urine in the morning)
  • melanoma (malignant tumor that affects the skin).

Beer color in urine appears when hepatocytes are affected, caused by viral hepatitis or alcoholic liver damage. With these diseases, it is not able to metabolize bilirubin, and it appears in large quantities in the blood, from which it is filtered in the kidneys.

Reddish urine usually indicates a certain eating habits of a person. So, it appears when using a large amount of beets, carrots or blueberries. Another of its causes may be aspirin or antipyrin.

At the same time, it should be distinguished from bright red urine due to renal colic or infarct of the kidney. The diagnostic criterion will be the detection of erythrocytes or hemoglobin in the urinary sediment, which indicate colic or circulatory disorders.

Dark cloudy urine is a sign of the inflammatory process. The lack of transparency indicates the presence of various impurities in it. It can be bacteria, dead leukocytes or lethal epithelial cells. The microscopic examination of urine helps to detect these elements.

Features of dark urine in men

Specific reasons for the appearance in men of urine of dark color are:

  • lesion of the prostate;
  • epididymitis - inflammatory defeat of epididymis;
  • traumatic damage to the scrotum.

Otherwise, the symptoms and causes of color changes in urine in men and women are the same.

Dark urine in women with pregnancy

Dark urine in women with pregnancy

The main cause of dark urine in a woman during pregnancy is a toxicosis (vomiting). It leads to dehydration of the body and the concentration of coloring substances in the urine is higher than normal. These urochromes lead to a darkening of the biological fluid.

Examination of urinary sediment in toxicosis can reveal the presence of acetone. Other features are:

  • repeated vomiting;
  • dryness of mucous membranes;
  • persistent nausea;
  • pressure reduction;
  • increased heart rate;
  • a slight rise in temperature;
  • acetone odor from the mouth, etc.

Toxicosis is not the only cause of dark urine in a pregnant woman. A similar mechanism occurs in food poisoning (infections).

All of the above factors should also be deleted. The changed color of urine during pregnancy should always be alarming and cause a detailed examination.

What should I do if I see a dark color of urine?

What to do if a dark color of urine is detected

What to do when urine does not acquire a characteristic color? - You should find out the reason for this condition. To do this, you must adhere to a certain algorithm (the initial stages of the man can perform independently):

  1. To analyze the food ration - are there any products with bright colors (beets, blueberries, carrots, etc.).
  2. Analyze whether medicines are taken, especially antibiotics (Metronidazole), sulfonamides, Aspirin or other non-steroids.
  3. Evaluate whether there are accompanying symptoms (vomiting, fever, diarrhea, etc.).
  4. Is it possible to identify a provoking factor - pregnancy, burns, poisoning, etc.?
  5. To pass the analysis of urine for a microscopy.
  6. If microscopic examination does not reveal abnormalities, then a biochemical analysis of urine (assessing the presence of certain chemicals, including toxic ones) is necessary.
  7. Take a blood test to identify possible anemia.

The last 3 points of this algorithm is the doctor's task. Therefore, if you change the color of urine, you should consult a specialist. Treatment should be prompt in the following situations:

  • pregnancy;
  • temperature increase;
  • repeated vomiting;
  • soreness of urination;
  • appearance of icterus of the skin;
  • development of puffiness;
  • massive burns.

If physiological (morning increased urine concentration), iatrogenic (caused by taking medications) or food causes are excluded, then treatment is performed. It depends on the background disease and is assigned by the appropriate specialist.

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