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Causes of poor monthly periods: pregnancy or illness symptoms?

When a woman has scant menstrual periods - this condition is called hypomenorrhea.

It has its own reasons, the elimination of which contributes to the normalization of the menstrual cycle. However, to identify them requires an additional examination, in the first place, hormonal.

Content

Causes of poor monthly

Causes of poor monthly brown (or red) are characterized by impaired hormonal regulation of cyclical changes in the female body. The following conditions predispose to this:

  • Intake of toxic substances in the body from the outside;
  • Endogenous intoxication (toxic substances are formed in the body with liver and / or kidney diseases);
  • Infections - mumps, tuberculosis, influenza, etc .;
  • Eating disorders, incl. and its severe restriction for weight loss;
  • Lack of vitamins in the body;
  • An excess of adipose tissue, which is an endocrine organ that disrupts the normal functioning of the ovaries;
  • Harmfulness associated with the particular nature of women's labor (for example, work in the pharmaceutical industry)
  • Anemia;
  • Brain injury;
  • Neoplasms affecting the nervous system;
  • The impact of radiation energy, incl. and X-ray examination;
  • Genetic disorders affecting the female reproductive system;
  • Inflammatory processes in the uterus and its appendages.

Causes of poor monthly

As a result of the action of such damaging factors (or their combination), the periods become scarce. This is realized through 2 main mechanisms:

  1. Direct disruption of the central links regulating menstrual function;
  2. Direct damage to the ovaries or uterus, i.e. peripheral links of the menstrual system.

Hormonal changes detected in hypomenorrhea can initiate the development of other hormone-dependent pathologies in the female body:

  • Infertility;
  • Increased risk of uterine and ovarian tumors;
  • Inflammatory processes in the reproductive system (normally, estrogens have a protective effect on the epithelium of the genital organs).

Therefore, scanty periods require additional examination and appropriate treatment. This helps reduce the risk of associated complications, the consequences of which can be very serious.

Scanty period after childbirth

Bloody scanty discharge instead of menstruation after childbirth is called lochia.

In the first days of the postpartum period, they are allocated in moderate quantities, resembling menstruation, but by 3-4 days they decrease in volume. They are bloody in nature until about the 10th day of the postpartum period.

Then they take on a mucous and bloody appearance, and from the 2nd week look like whites (when microscopy of red blood cells no longer exists, only desquamated epithelial cells, leukocytes and minor detritus from the uterine cavity are determined).

In extremely rare cases, bloody lochia can persist until the 42nd day of the postpartum period, but their number must constantly decrease (this feature distinguishes lochia from bleeding).

Bleeding is defined by the World Health Organization as a condition in which a change of more than 1 sanitary pad per hour is required. In case of its development, the puerperal should immediately seek medical help, since The health hazard is very great.

Subsequently, women breastfeeding, as a rule, renewed menstruation is not abundant. The rate is due to the release of an increased amount of prolactin. Therefore, a nursing mother should not worry about scanty periods after childbirth.

In this case, the menstrual cycle is also characterized by irregularity. But against the background of such changes, it is possible and not to notice the onset of pregnancy. Therein lies the danger of the situation, especially if the poor monthly period began early.

Any doubts - the reason for the test for the detection of choriogonin in the urine (pregnancy test).

Scanty monthly after delay

Scanty monthly after delay With scant monthly test is an indispensable diagnostic analysis, especially if there is at least a minimum delay. It will allow, with a certain degree of probability, to exclude an ectopic pregnancy.

This pathological condition manifests as bloody bloody discharge, the source of which is the inner layer of the uterus. Often this may be the only symptom of this obstetric complication.

Against the background of inadequate development of the ovum, rejection of the decidually modified uterine mucosa occurs. This process is outwardly manifested by bloody discharge.

A woman must remember! If, after a delay, the periods come not as usual, it is necessary to immediately carry out a pregnancy test. It allows you to diagnose (pre) ectopic pregnancy.

Early diagnosis is the key to successful organ preservation treatment. And it, in turn, will contribute to a favorable pregnancy in the future.

Scanty monthly after scraping

Poor monthly after 40 can be associated with 2 main factors:

  • Produced curettage (diagnostic or therapeutic on the background of bleeding);
  • The onset of menopause, characterized by hormonal changes.

After scraping, the release of a small amount of blood from the genital tract is a normal variant, since mucosa is a bleeding wound surface. Gradually, blood loss decreases due to epithelialization of the endometrium.

Strengthening the intensity of discharge, especially if there is a release of clots, should be alarming for bleeding. The cause is usually the remains of abnormal tissue in the uterus.

The climacteric period is characterized by sharp fluctuations in the levels of sex hormones. In one cycle, they can significantly exceed the norm, and in the other - be much less. In the first variant, bleeding is clinically observed, and in the second, the scarcity of irregular menses.

This situation is usually not a reason for treatment. Replacement hormone therapy is recommended only for pronounced tides and other disorders, as well as for menopause (there are no menstruations for a year or more).

Symptoms of poor monthly with signs of illness

Scanty periods are a sign of functional oppression of the ovaries. Other symptoms are characteristic of this condition:

  • Shortening the duration of menstruation (oligomenorrhea);
  • Decrease in menstruation, i.e. they come with long delays - up to 6 months (opsmenorrhea);
  • Complete cessation of menstruation of 6 months or more (amenorrhea).

Concomitant symptoms are determined by the nature of the underlying disease. They can be very variable:

  • Irritability and tearfulness;
  • Insomnia;
  • Emotional lability;
  • Chills;
  • High blood pressure;
  • Rapid pulse;
  • Pressure asymmetry;
  • Cold limbs and numbness;
  • Fear and pain in the heart;
  • Increased urination;
  • Sharp weight loss;
  • Selection of colostrum with pressure on the areola.

Diagnosis of possible diseases

Diagnosis for scanty menses The primary diagnostic search in the presence of scanty menstruation implies the specification of the degree of hypomenorrhea, which indicates the safety of compensatory mechanisms.

The first degree is characterized by the appearance of a menstrual reaction in response to the appointment of progesterone drugs. This indicates a reduced synthesis of progesterone by the ovaries, but intact estrogen production.

In the second degree of hypomenorrhea, neither estrogens nor progesterone cause normal menstruation. This indicates a far-reaching pathological process.

The second stage is laboratory diagnostics, which implies the determination of basic hormones:

  • Estrogens (depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle);
  • Progesterone;
  • Testosterone;
  • Follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones;
  • Corresponding hypothalamic liberins;
  • Prolactin.

Depending on the results of the second stage, studies of the third stage are organized. They are necessary to identify the true cause of the disease, which may be the following:

  • Inflammatory brain damage - meningitis or encephalitis;
  • Traumatic brain damage;
  • Mental disorders;
  • Metabolic imbalance;
  • Vegetovascular disorders;
  • Itsenko-Cushing disease;
  • Epilepsy;
  • Symmonds disease (drastic weight loss and gradual cessation of menstruation);
  • Hyperprolactinemia (reduced dopamine production, stimulating the production of prolactin);
  • Sclerocystic ovaries;
  • Sheehan syndrome that develops due to heavy postpartum hemorrhage;
  • Asherman syndrome - the presence of synechiae in the uterus, caused by inflammatory diseases and frequent curettage.

Therefore, diagnostic measures of the third stage can be:

  • X-ray of the Turkish saddle, which helps to identify pituitary tumors (they are accompanied by an increased formation of prolactin);
  • Ultrasound examination of the uterus and ovaries;
  • Hysteroscopy;
  • Electroencephalography, etc.

Treatment of scanty periods

Treatment of scanty periods depends on the established true cause of the condition.

Usually, women who go to a doctor with a similar problem are given progesterone therapy. It will not only contribute to the onset of normal menstruation, but also bring some clarity to the existing hormonal disorders.

Restoration of menstruation while receiving progesterone may not require additional testing, because in a perfectly healthy woman, violations of the menstrual function are permissible, but they are observed only once a year.

With more frequent episodes of cycle disorders, or if scanty periods pass in clots, specific therapy is prescribed depending on the violations found.

Hyperprolactinemia is an indication for taking dopamine blockers. Surgical treatment may be required if a tumor is found in the pituitary gland.

In Sheehan's syndrome, hormone replacement therapy is produced by the pituitary gland. The sooner treatment is started, the faster and better the response of peripheral endocrine regulation organs to the therapy being performed.

Sclerocystic ovaries are accompanied by anovulation, so they are prescribed drugs that stimulate it. At the same time, the menstrual cycle is adjusted. The ineffectiveness of the ongoing conservative therapy for 9 months is an indication for surgery (wedge-shaped excision of the ovaries).

Treatment of Asherman syndrome is a very difficult task. It is recommended as early as possible to identify and conduct cyclic hormone therapy. Historically, attempts have been made to transplant a healthy endometrium to such patients, but they have been unsuccessful.

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