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Decryption of analyzes

Causes of elevated leukocytes in a smear in women, the norm and pathology

Gynecological, or urogenital, smear helps to diagnose many diseases of the reproductive sphere. It determines the presence of pathogenic microbes in the vagina, epithelial cells, blood cells and other indicators.

The smear analysis on leukocytes is needed to identify not only infectious and inflammatory pathologies of the female genital organs, but also the severity of their course.

Content

Indications for the smear

Indications for the smear

White blood cell smear

A smear on the microflora is taken on examination of the woman for the prevention and diagnosis of gynecological diseases. The indications for delivery are:

  • abnormal vaginal discharge ;
  • failures in the menstrual cycle;
  • lower abdominal pain;
  • itching, soreness, and burning sensation in the vagina, urethra, and during urination;
  • discomfort during intimacy;
  • long-term use of antibiotics, hormones and other drugs;
  • pregnancy, obligatory analysis in the first trimester

But even if there are no such symptoms, a smear should be taken every three months, since many pathologies are asymptomatic. Material for smear in women taken from the walls of the vagina, urethra and cervix with a disposable spatula.

This is a quick, simple and painless procedure, and it only brings pain and discomfort to the affected walls of the urethra — when there is an infection or an inflammatory process.

Preparing to take a smear

The procedure should be prepared, since some factors lead to false results of analysis - the detection of leukocytes in the absence of disease or vice versa.

Preparation for the smear is:

  1. Refusal of sexual intimacy 3 days before the visit to the doctor;
  2. Stopping the medication of any form (tablets, suppositories, douching, injections, ointments) a week before the study;
  3. Within 2 days prior to analysis, neither soap nor gel can be used for hygiene of the external genital organs — only warm water, and the last intimate toilet is held the night before;
  4. 3 hours before delivery can not urinate.

Smear sampling is not carried out during menstruation, except for urgent diagnosis. The best time for analysis is the first days after menstruation or shortly before their occurrence.

What pay attention when deciphering the analysis?

Leukocyte In interpreting the results of the analysis, the degree of leukocyte increase is important. The more of them, the more acute the infectious or inflammatory process.

For example, very high rates are detected with a recent infection with venereal disease , in the case of an acute form of inflammation of the appendages, colpitis.

If leukocytes are elevated in a smear, attention is paid to other values ​​of this bacteriostatic analysis, since leukocytosis accompanies a change in the number of other elements.

For example, with thrush there is the presence of fungal flora, with bacterial vaginosis and gonorrhea - coccal microorganisms, with inflammation of the vagina or endometritis, the number of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria increases. But the population of lactobacilli, which are present in the norm, and the acidity of the medium can be reduced.

Leukocytes in a smear rate in women, table

In the laboratory, when studying a smear under a microscope, the number of leukocytes in the field of view is counted, the norm does not exceed 15. In a healthy girl or woman, a small amount of white blood cells is always present in the vagina.

When an infection occurs, they recognize foreign cells and begin an active struggle - their number increases significantly.

In this table - the rate of leukocytes in a smear in women and other healthy indicators, which determines the analysis.

Microflora elements Norm indicators
Vagina V Cervix C Urethra U
White blood cells up to 15 up to 30 to 10
Squamous epithelial cells present in moderation
Gram-positive sticks (gr. +), Lactobacilli lot absent
Slime moderate (++) moderate or absent (++ or +)
Staphylococcus aureus few
Anaerobic and Gram-negative (gr.-) sticks absent

Normally, a gynecological smear also does not show gardnerella, gonococci, trichomonads, chlamydia, atypical cells and yeast-like fungi (candida).

The results of the analysis are usually ready within 2-3 days or on the same day.

If the study showed a high white blood cell count, then the next task of the doctor is to identify the exact reason for their increase.

To do this, use PCR analysis (DNA diagnosis of the pathogen), bacteriological seeding, take smears for hidden infections and cytology (Pap test), if necessary, prescribe other diagnostic methods.

The cause of increased white blood cells in a smear in women

Cause of elevated leukocytes

An infection or inflammatory process in the urogenital organs is always accompanied by an increase in leukocytes in a woman’s smear. The reason for the increase in their level may be hidden in various diseases:

  • inflammations of appendages ( adnexitis ), uterine mucosa (endometritis), urethra (urethritis), cervical canal (cervicitis), vagina (colpitis);
  • benign and malignant tumors of the genitourinary sphere;
  • STDs - syphilis , trichomoniasis , gonorrhea , chlamydia or others;
  • dysbacteriosis - vagina or intestines;
  • systemic diseases;
  • hormonal imbalance.

Deviation from the norm in the analysis of leukocytes is associated with frequent stress, chronic fatigue, prolonged use of antibiotics and other drugs.

Sometimes a moderate increase in white blood cells in a smear - up to 25 cells - results in active sex life.

Leukocytes during pregnancy

Leukocytes during pregnancy The rate of leukocytes in a smear in pregnant women is 15-20 cells per field of view. During gestation, the analysis of a woman is taken several times - the first in the earliest terms when registering.

A high level of leukocytes at the same time can indicate both an acute pathological process and the presence of a latent infection, which became aggravated after the onset of pregnancy.

Most often these are inflammatory diseases caused by STDs, or thrush (candidiasis). After an accurate diagnosis, local treatment is prescribed, and if it has no effect, then antibiotic therapy or other methods are chosen depending on the period.

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