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Polyps in the uterus: causes, symptoms and treatment methods

Uterine polyp is a rounded fungoid neoplasm of benign nature on the pedicle, developing inside the uterus (in the uterine bottom or inside the cervical canal).

The disease can develop in women of all ages, starting from adolescence, but most often polyps are diagnosed in mature patients (over 50 years old).

Depending on the structure of the neoplasm, the following types are distinguished:

  • Glandular - occurs predominantly in young women, most often develops as a result of the pathological growth of the endometrium, therefore, the neoplasm is called the polyp of the endometrium in the uterus.
  • Fibrous - is a dense neoplasm consisting of connective tissue, is formed as a result of hormonal disruption in the background of the onset of menopause.
  • Fibrous-glandular (or fibrocystic) - develops against the background of endometriosis, due to hormonal changes in the body.
  • Adenomatous - characterized by the presence of modified cells in its structure, this type of polyposis most often malignized (develops into cancer).
  • Placental - occurs in women who have given birth as a result of incomplete discharge of the placenta, from a particle of which a polyp begins to form in the bottom of the uterus.


The main causes of polyp in the uterus

Polyps in the uterus

Polyps in the uterus

The development of polyposis in the uterus or its cervix is ​​due to the effects on the body of internal and environmental factors:

  • Hormonal changes;
  • Occlusion of the lumen of the blood vessel;
  • Transferred or chronic diseases of the uterus and its appendages;
  • Diagnostic curettage of the uterine cavity, surgical abortion;
  • Disorders in the endocrine glands;
  • Overweight, obesity;
  • Hypodynamia;
  • Genetic predisposition;
  • Treatment with anticancer drugs.

Symptoms and signs of a polyp in the uterus

Symptoms and signs of a polyp in the uterus

symptoms of manifestations

As the neoplasm grows inside the uterus or in the neck of the organ, the following clinical symptoms of a polyp occur in a woman:

  • Failures of the menstrual cycle - delayed menstruation or intermenstrual bleeding from the vagina;
  • Discomfort and contact bleeding after sex, due to the trauma of a polyp located on the cervix;
  • Pain during menstruation in the lower abdomen;
  • Excessive white discharge from the genital tract in the middle of the cycle;
  • Lack of pregnancy with regular sexual activity without the use of contraceptives.

When one of these symptoms or several signs of a polyp appears in the uterus, the woman should hurry to see a doctor.

Diagnosis and detection of polyps

The pledge of women's health is regular visits to antenatal clinics and routine check-ups at the gynecologist. Neoplasms in the uterus or in the cervix are easily diagnosed by ultrasound.

To confirm the exact diagnosis allows hysteroscopy or x-ray examination of the uterine cavity.

In order to establish a malignant lesion, this is a nidus or a benign one, the patient is curetted of a polyp in the uterus under conditions of a small operating room, observing the aseptic and antiseptic rules.

The contents of the uterus are sent for further histological study, on the basis of the results of which the treatment is prescribed.

Treatment of uterine polyps

Treatment of uterine polyps In order to understand how to treat polyps in the uterus, we must first determine the cause of their formation and what cells they consist of. In most cases, for polyps in the uterus, surgery is necessary, the volume of which may be different.

Some types of tumors that do not contain modified cells can be treated by conservative methods - antibiotics, immunomodulators, antiviral agents, hormonal drugs.

In this case, a woman should be regularly monitored by a gynecologist and undergo a comprehensive examination 1 time in 6 months.

Removal of the polyp in the uterus

Surgical intervention has a different scope and can be performed:

  • Under general anesthesia by endoscopy with biopsy;
  • Removal of polyps in the uterus with a laser — the leg of the neoplasm is burned, as a result of which blood stops flowing to the tissues of the polyp and its death occurs;
  • Radical surgery with removal of the uterus - is carried out in case of lesions of the uterine cavity with multiple polyps with atypical cells.
After removing a polyp in the uterus, a woman is recommended

After removing the polyp in the uterus

After removing a polyp in the uterus, a woman is recommended:

  • Do not take a bath, do not swim in open water for 2 weeks;
  • Do not go to the solarium, sauna;
  • Do not lift weights;
  • Do not have sex for 10 days.

Along with traditional methods, a woman can apply folk treatment of polyps in the uterus, but it is not worth replacing them with a doctor's prescription, since this can lead to a worsening of the condition and the development of complications.

Polyp complications

The most common complications of uterine polyposis are:

  • Infertility;
  • Contact bleeding;
  • Inflammatory processes in the uterus;
  • Miscarriage of pregnancy;
  • Rebirth of pathology into cancer.

Preventing the occurrence of polyps in the uterus

Prevention of uterine polyposis are:

  • Regular annual check-ups at the gynecologist;
  • Lack of abortion;
  • Sex life with one partner;
  • Timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs.

Polyps in the uterus during pregnancy

The safe attachment of the embryo in the uterus in the presence of polyps in it is difficult, but if this happens, the pregnancy should be observed more carefully.

Carrying a child with a woman with polyposis is fraught with premature birth, insufficient oxygen supply to the fetus, and delayed fetal development of the child.

In the early stages of pregnancy may result in a spontaneous miscarriage.

ICD code 10

In the international classification of diseases, pathology is in section N84 - Polyp of the female genital organs

  • N84.0 Uterine Polyp

Important questions

What is dangerous polyp in the uterus?

Uterine polyps must be diagnosed and treated promptly, as the disease can lead to a number of complications:

  • Paroxysmal abdominal pain;
  • The discovery of massive internal bleeding when the leg of a polyp is torn off;
  • Rebirth of a neoplasm into cancer;
  • The inability to get pregnant or bear the child before the deadline, if the conception happened safely;
  • Ectopic pregnancy;
  • Menstrual disorders, leading to the development of ovarian cysts, overweight, malfunction of the endocrine system.

Can a uterine polyp cause cancer?

If the disease is allowed to drift and not be observed by a doctor, then the polyposis of a benign nature can develop into cancer over time.

This, as a rule, applies to adenomatous polyps, which initially contain modified cells.


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