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Polyps of the rectum: symptoms of manifestation, treatment and removal

Polyps of the rectum - a pathological neoplasm of benign nature, formed by the proliferation of glandular epithelium.

In most cases it looks round and spherical and attached to the intestinal mucosa by means of a thin pedicle. As the pathology progresses and sprouts, it can take the form of a bunch of grapes or cauliflower.

The color can vary from bright red to red with a cyanotic shade, depending on the blood supply to the lesion, the sizes are from a few mm to several cm.

In the international classifier ICD-10 the code of a polyp of a rectum: K62.1.

They represent the formation of a soft elastic consistency. Most often, the disease occurs in people older than 50 years, but cases of detection of polyps of the rectum in a child are not uncommon.


Types of polyps of the rectum

Types of polyps of the rectum Depending on the type of origin and composition, there are several types of pathology:

  1. Fibrous polyp - originates from connective tissue, which replaces the epithelium of the intestine against the background of any of its damages from the inside. This type of polyposis rarely turns into a malignant form of the flow, but very often it becomes inflamed and causes discomfort to the patient;
  2. Adenomatous polyp - originates from glandular tissue. This species can be regarded as a precancerous state, since under the influence of certain factors polyposis develops into a malignant form of the flow;
  3. Inoculated polyp - consists of glandular tissue, as well as adenomatous neoplasms.

Depending on the cause of the development of the disease distinguish:

  • Inflammatory nature - develop against a background of a long inflammatory process in the intestines;
  • Hyperplastic - are manifested against the background of excessive growth of the epithelium lining the walls of the intestine from the inside;
  • Neoplastic (malignant polyps of the rectum) - develop from mutated cancer cells.

Depending on the number of tumors in the intestine distinguish single polyps and multiple.


The exact causes of the development of polyposis in the intestine can not be called by any specialist, however, there are a number of factors that can trigger this pathological process:

  • Chronic inflammatory bowel diseases - colitis, enteritis, proctitis and paraproctitis;
  • Postponed intestinal infections;
  • Chronic diarrhea;
  • Chronic constipation;
  • Cracks in the anus;
  • Hemorrhoids;
  • Genetic predisposition;
  • Unbalanced food with a predominance of fat in the diet and baking.

Symptoms of polyps of the rectum

Symptoms of polyps of the rectum

At the initial stage of the development of polyposis, the disease proceeds without any clinical symptoms, as the patient progresses and grows polyps, the following symptoms appear:

  • Sensation of a foreign body in the anus;
  • Allocations with feces of pus, blood, mucus;
  • Pain during bowel movement;
  • Sudden hemorrhages from the anus due to damage to the polyp's legs;
  • Stool disorders - diarrhea or constipation;
  • Falling of the peduncle of the polyp with strong straining during the act of defecation;
  • Flatulence, the separation of gases, bloating.

In the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment, the polyps of the rectum progress and increase in size, which can lead to complications:

  1. Development of acute intestinal obstruction;
  2. Malignization of the process (degeneration into cancer);
  3. Intestinal bleeding;
  4. Development of paraproctitis and fistula formation of the rectum.

Diagnosis of the disease

Timely detection of the pathological process can reduce the risk of degeneration of polyposis into cancer.

The clinical picture of the disease is similar to the inflammation of the hemorrhoids, so it is important to correctly differentiate the pathological process.

Diagnosis of rectum polyps


To diagnose polyps of the rectum, the patient is assigned a number of examinations:

  • Colonoscopy is a study that allows to assess the condition of the mucous membranes in the upper parts of the large intestine;
  • Recto - manoscopy - allows you to determine the location of the localization, their size, condition;
  • Rectal digital rectal examination;
  • Irrigoscopy - X-ray examination of the time of which it is possible to detect formations of especially large sizes located in the upper parts of the large intestine;
  • A biopsy - from a pathological site, a piece of tissue is picked out and sent to a further histological examination. This method of diagnosis can accurately determine the presence of atypical (cancer) cells;
  • Study of feces for latent blood - allows you to differentiate polyps from anal fissure, ulcerative colitis, stomach ulcer, hemorrhoids.

Treatment of polyps of the rectum

Treatment of polyps of the rectum The operation with rectal polyps is often the only way to treat.

Whether it is necessary to delete a polyp in a rectum and when it is better to make it - the expert should solve. It depends on the age of the patient, the features of the course of the disease, the presence of concomitant bowel pathologies, the function of blood coagulation and others.

If the clinical symptoms of the disease worsen, the patient is prescribed drugs from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that can eliminate the inflammatory process and prepare for planned surgical intervention.

When the disease goes to a malignant form, it is not necessary to talk about preliminary medication at all - the polyp needs to be urgently removed.

Removal of polyps in the rectum

The type of intervention depends on the size of the pathology, its shape, structure, quantity and location of localization.

With single neoplasms on the foot, the endoscopic method is most often used, during which the patient, using the loop electrode under the control of the built-in miniature video camera, excise the polyp together with the leg.

After removing the tumor, the attachment site of the leg is cauterized with an electrode - this is called the coagulation method, which prevents the occurrence of postoperative bleeding.

Removal of polyps in the rectum

Polyp removal (endoscopic method)

This method of treatment has a number of advantages:

  • The procedure is performed under local anesthesia;
  • The risk of complications is minimal;
  • After the procedure, after a few hours the patient can go home;
  • Fast recovery period.

Polyps can be removed by classical surgery, using a scalpel.

During this operation, the patient is given general anesthesia, extends the anal opening with special proctologic mirrors and performs excision.

Disadvantages of the classical method of removal are high traumatism, a long period of rehabilitation and the probability of recurrence of the disease with incomplete removal of the polyp's leg.

After removal of the polyp of the rectum

The polyp, after surgical removal from the intestine, is sent to a histological laboratory for further investigation.

If during the examination of the material cancer cells are detected, the patient is given a specialized treatment, and if necessary, the removal of the affected area of ​​the large intestine is carried out.

In severe cases, surgeons have to resort to total removal of the large intestine, after which the small intestine is sewn with a straight line.

After removal of the polyp of the rectum, the patient is shown a diet that spares the intestines as much as possible and allows the mucous membranes to recover sooner.

The diet excludes dishes that cause fermentation - cabbage, potatoes, legumes, bakery products, buns. The food should be wiped, jelly-like, mucous. In addition, it is necessary to comply with the drinking regime and prevent the development of constipation.


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