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Polyp of the cervical canal: causes, symptoms and treatment (removal)

Often on a gynecological examination or during an ultrasound, the doctor diagnoses a polyp located in the cervical cervical canal. Should I leave the cervical canal polyp alone? Or is it necessary to sound the alarm and urgently remove it?

It is necessary to choose the "golden mean": contact a qualified gynecologist, who will appoint the necessary examination to determine the cause of the pathological process and then choose the best treatment option.

Content

Types of cervical polyps

A cervical polyp has the appearance of an outgrowth of the outer layer of the mucous membrane on the vascular pedicle protruding into the lumen of the cervical canal. The stem can be filiform or rather wide, but the presence of vessels in it (vascularization) distinguishes a true polyp from a pseudo-polyp.

Polyp of the cervical canal (photo)

Polyp of the cervical canal (photo)

Also, this symptom causes some risk of developing oncology when exposed to provoking factors. Therefore, polyps, although they are benign tumors, are considered to be a precancerous form of the defeat of the female genital organs.

Most often polypous outgrowths are formed on the border of the cervical and cervical epithelium and are often found during a routine gynecological examination with mirrors. Internal cervical polyps are detected by ultrasound.

Polyp looks like a mushroom formation (leg and cap) of pale pink color. At pinching the legs, the polypous overgrowth acquires a purple-cyanotic color.

Polyps can be small - in a few mm, large - 2-4 cm; single and multiple (polyposis).

On the histological structure are distinguished:

  • the glandular polyp of the cervical canal is the least dangerous form, the glandular structure is excellently amenable to conservative therapy;
  • fibrous formation - it is distinguished by high density (clearly visible on ultrasound), it is often found in women in menopause, it is quite dangerous because after surgical excision, hormone therapy is prescribed;
  • glandular fibrous polyp of the cervical canal - a common type of benign neoplasms, consists of glandular and connective tissue cells, recommended for removal;
  • Adenomatous growth is the most dangerous form, requiring immediate treatment and long-term follow-up in order to avoid cancer.

Causes

Causes As well as any polypous formations in the reproductive organs, cervical polyps are a sign of a woman’s impaired health.

The reason for this may be:

  • inflammatory process - a necessary factor for the occurrence of cervical polyps - vaginal dysbacteriosis ( candidiasis , gardnerellosis), endometriosis, genital infections;
  • hormonal changes - menopause, progesterone deficiency / excess estrogen;
  • microtrauma of the cervical canal - hysteroscopy, abortion, complicated childbirth;
  • external factors - insufficient / improper hygiene, stress;
  • immunodeficiency - general and local with frequent inflammatory diseases of the uterus, vagina;
  • burdened heredity - benign or malignant formations of the sexual sphere in relatives;
  • endocrine disorders - hypo-, hyperthyroidism, obesity.

Signs and symptoms of cervical polyps

The polyps of the cervical location themselves, especially the small and isolated ones, do not manifest themselves with any symptoms.

The only sign of the development of pathology can be whites - whitish mucous vaginal discharge.

symptoms of cervical polyps

symptoms (photo of a polyp)

However, asymptomatic flow is most often an exception to the rule. In most cases, the cervical polyp develops against the background of other diseases that give the following symptoms:

  • discomfort in the lower abdomen, occasional sharp or nagging pains;
  • pathological discharge - mucous or bloody spotting;
  • contact bleeding after sexual contact;
  • disturbed menstrual cycle - change in the volume of blood released and the duration of menstruation, non-menstrual bleeding;
    infertility.

In most cases, cervical polyps are diagnosed in combination with cervical erosion, endometrial polyps, cystic lesions of the ovaries, and myoma.

Polyp of the cervical canal during pregnancy

A tumor found in the cervical canal of a pregnant woman is not always a polyp.

Psevdopolip - outgrowth of the mucosa in the lumen of the cervical canal without signs of vascular germination - a functional state due to hormonal rearrangement of the female body and preparation for childbirth. Usually such pseudopolyps disappear on their own after birth.

A true polyp of the cervical canal during pregnancy causes irritation of the cervix and can cause miscarriage in the first weeks. Especially dangerous in this regard are large and multiple growths.

Polyposis may be injured during obstetric care - this increases the risk of malignancy (ozlokachestvlenie).

Do I need to delete?

Removal of a cervical polyp in a pregnant woman is indicated with a diameter of more than 1 cm or signs of necrotization of polypous tissues.

Diagnostics

Usually, diagnosis of a cervical polyp is not difficult. Pathological tumors are detected by the following types of studies:

  • gynecological examination - polypous thickenings protruding from the external pharynx;
  • colposcopy and cervicoscopy - help identify small tumors, fix the presence of translucent vessels in the pedicle, identify inflammation and necrosis;
  • Ultrasound (more informatively transvaginal) - determination of the structure of the polyp and its density by echogenicity (clear contours, reduced echogenicity of the site), detection of concomitant polyposis of endometrium and fibroids;
  • Hysteroscopy - endoscopic technique allows you to accurately establish the diagnosis, allows the simultaneous removal of a polyp and taking its tissues for histology.

In addition to the instrumental examination, the patient is given a swab from the vagina and bacteriological seeding (detection of infection), a PCR test (detection of the papillomavirus), PAP analysis of atypical cells, and hormonal studies.

Treatment: Is it necessary to remove a polyp of the cervical canal?

Do I need to remove the polyp of the cervical canal?

Conservative therapy with hormonal agents, as the main type of treatment of polyps, is advisable only for the glandular structure of the neoplasm.

In other cases, planned or emergency surgical excision of polypous growths and subsequent adequate therapy are indicated:

  • hormonal drugs;
  • anti-inflammatory drugs;
  • local immunostimulants.

Methods for removing a cervical polyp

Before any surgical intervention, anti-inflammatory therapy is first carried out to prevent the spread of infection after radical treatment.

Scraping the cervical canal

It is advisable for the combined growth of multiple polyps in the cervix and the uterine cavity itself. However, the probability of re-growth of polyps with this type of treatment is quite high.

Burning the polyp bed helps reduce the risk of recurrence. The cervical curettage procedure is performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. It is obligatory to send a biopsy to histology.

Target hysteroscopy

A less traumatic method is the twisting of a polyp with a leg. This reduces the risk of recurrence.

Hauling polyp legs

A catgut suture is applied to a polyp located close to the external pharynx and visible during a gynecological examination.

Clamping of the nourishing vessels leads to its necrosis and rejection.

Cryodestruction

Focused freezing of a cervical polyp with a mixture of liquid nitrogen. Absolutely painless manipulation, takes only a few minutes.

Patients are warned that a few days - weeks of fluid from the genital tract. Sex life for this period is terminated.

Cauterization of a polyp

Modern techniques of minimally traumatic removal of a cervical polyp by cauterization imply the use of high-tech equipment.

Depending on the level of technical equipment of the clinic, the attending physician offers the patient laser excision, electrocoagulation, and radiofrequency ablation.

Cervical conization surgery

Conic cervical excision is a traumatic method of treating a cervical polyp.

Cone-shaped excision of cervical tissue together with polyps is advisable in women with a relapsing course of cervical polyposis.

Cervical amputation

Radical intervention is carried out with an unfavorable result of histological examination, the detection of atypical cells.

This extreme measure leads to the impossibility of subsequent natural childbearing and is most often carried out by older women.

Complications of polyps of the cervical canal

  • Infertility.
  • Bleeding and infection.
  • Scars on the cervix. Caesarean section in labor.
  • Relapses.
  • Cancer degeneration.

Prevention of polyp formation

Prevention of polyp formation

In order to avoid the formation of a polyp of the cervical canal and its subsequent removal, women are recommended the following rules:

  1. Regularly, twice a year to pass a dispensary examination at the gynecologist.
  2. Promptly treat gynecological diseases and endocrine pathology.
  3. Eliminate the trauma of the cervix - avoid abortion through contraception.
  4. To observe intimate hygiene.
  5. Contact the doctor at the first painful signs and non-menstrual bleeding.

Polyp of the cervical canal - code according to MKB 10

Pathology code in the international classification of diseases.

Section N84:

  • Female Genital Polyp

Subsection N84.1:

  • Polyp of the cervical canal (cervix).
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