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Endometrial polyp: causes, methods of treatment and removal of the polyp

Often, a woman undergoing gynecological ultrasound, learns from a doctor about the presence in the uterus of a polyp. Often repeated in this case, the words of the doctor "this is not scary," or the silent purpose of curettage does not inspire confidence in his health. What is an endometrial polyp, whether to worry and how to treat it - these are the main questions to which you should know the answer.

Content

Endometrial polyp - what is it and how to treat?

What it is? The endometrial polyp is a focal benign growth of the mucous membrane of the uterus, which is a limited outgrowth of the inner layer of the endometrium on the pedicle penetrated by the vessels. Overgrown foci can be single or multiple.

Soft, often small (a few mm) growths sometimes reach a few centimeters in size. Multiple endometrial outgrowths, as well as re-formed after their radical removal, indicate the development of polyposis in a woman as a disease state.

Endometrial polyp

Polyp endometrium photo

Therapeutic tactics directly depend on the size of the polyp and its histological type, the state of the reproductive system. Types of endometrial processes depending on their cellular structure:

  1. Glandular - consists of the uterine glands and stroma;
  2. Glandular-fibrous - the most common type in women of childbearing age, in the composition of the growth found uterine glands and fibrous inclusions;
  3. Fibrous - only fibrous cells are found in the building;
  4. Adenomatous - the most dangerous (precancerous) type of polypous formation of the endometrium, is represented by glandular cells, some of which have atypical signs.

Endometrial polyps are found in women at any age, but more often they are diagnosed after 35 years. Accurately indicate the causes of endometrial polyp modern medicine can not. However, there is a list of conditions against which uterine polyp is often found:

  • Hormonal disorders - progesterone deficiency, excessive estrogen synthesis;
  • Abortion, miscarriage;
  • Prolonged use of the intrauterine device;
  • The complicated course of labor (especially aggravated by the growth of the placenta and its manual separation);
  • Inflammatory diseases of the genital sphere of a chronic nature with the development of endometritis;
  • Endocrine disorders - thyroid disease, obesity, diabetes;
  • Taking Tamoxifen (a hormonal agent) to treat breast cancer.

The first signs and symptoms of endometrial polyp

The first signs and symptoms of endometrial polyp

Single polyps of small sizes often form without giving any symptoms, and are an accidental finding during ultrasound examination of the uterus.

The main sign of the presence of an endometrial polyp in the uterus is the non-occurrence of the desired pregnancy and infertility against the background of general health.

The proliferation of uterine polyps (multiple foci, large size) manifests itself as follows:

  • Periodically arising pain (sharp or aching) in the lower abdomen, worse during intercourse;
  • Leucorrhea - an increased volume of whitish color compared to the usual;
  • Blood discharge - scanty spotting outside of menstruation, after intercourse;
  • Bleeding - occur 1-2 weeks after the end of menstruation;
  • Painful, heavy menstrual bleeding.

Endometrial polyp and pregnancy

Endometrial polyp and pregnancy

The fact that the polyp is the cause of non-occurrence of pregnancy has not been proven. However, feedback can be clearly seen: with infertility, hyperplastic growths of the endometrium are often detected, after removal of which problems with conceiving a child are eliminated.

Even a multiple repetition of the IVF procedure may not give a result. But even with the onset of the desired pregnancy, the uterine polyp significantly increases the risk of miscarriage and premature delivery. Removal of polypous growth is often carried out after birth.

Polyp Diagnosis

The diagnosis of endometrial polyp is usually not difficult. To do this, held:

  • Ultrasound - an outgrowth with clear boundaries on the background of a uniform endometrium is detected in the uterine cavity.
  • Hysteroscopy - instrumental examination of the uterus under general anesthesia with the possibility of single-stage removal of a detected polyp.
  • Histological analysis - determination of the cellular composition of the removed polyp.
  • Laboratory study of hormonal background - analysis of sex hormones and thyroid gland, is necessary for the proper appointment of the treatment regimen and the prevention of relapse.

Differential diagnosis is carried out with pregnancy (the first week, frozen), myoma (proliferation of the uterine muscle layer), endometriosis (large-scale, non-focal proliferation of the endometrium).

Endometrial polyp treatment - surgery, therapy, herbs

Endometrial polyp treatment

The only way to eliminate the endometrial polyp is its removal. Neither drug therapy nor folk recipes do not clear the uterus from pathological growths.

It is naive to believe that the endometrial polyp can resolve itself. A full-fledged medical complex includes the removal of polypous outgrowth and only after that the obligatory drug therapy to prevent its recurrence.

Operational methods for removal of uterine polyps

  • Gynecological curettage

Scraping of the endometrial polyp involves the mechanical rejection of the entire inner layer along with the polyps. The procedure is performed under local or general anesthesia on an outpatient basis.

Its main drawback is that polypous legs cannot be removed, and polyps often recur. Gynecological curettage is advisable in case of a combined uterus lesion with polyps and endometrial hyperplasia in menopausal women.

  • Therapeutic hysteroscopy

It is an aiming method of excision of polyps. Under general anesthesia, a minicamera is inserted into the uterine cavity, the identified polyp is removed along with the leg without traumatizing the surrounding tissues.

This method is most suitable for treating young women. With developed, large polypous growths with a clearly formed leg, a polypectomy is performed - “twisting” of the stem.

More about hysteroscopy

Physical methods: laser therapy, radiotherapy, cryodestruction, electrocoagulation

These techniques are based on temperature effects (cryodestruction - freezing with liquid nitrogen, radiotherapy - heating with radio waves) or cauterizing effect (laser or electric current).

The choice of a minimally traumatic method of removing polypous outgrowths in the uterus remains with the attending physician and depends on the availability of appropriate equipment in the clinic.

Such technologies are guaranteed to remove small polyps along with the leg and complement the hysteroscopic excision of large formations (cauterization of the polyp bed) to prevent recurrence.

Uterus removal

When diagnosing adenomatous polyps (high risk of cancer regeneration!), A radical removal of the uterus and its appendages is recommended for patients in the postmenopausal period.

This is the most traumatic method used to avoid the development of oncology in women with hereditary predisposition.

Hormone therapy

Hormone therapy

When hormonal disruptions - up to 40 years, combined contraceptives (Janine, Yarin) are recommended, young patients are treated with gestagen medicines (Utrogestan, Duphaston). Treatment with hormones after removal of the endometrial polyp lasts 3-6 months.

The newest means - Mirena Spiral - contains a therapeutic dose of hormones, used to treat patients of reproductive age who do not want to give birth anymore. Effective with massive uterine polyposis with simultaneous detection of fibroids. Duration of use - up to 5 years.

After surgical excision of endometrial polyps, it is imperative to influence the accompanying pathological abnormalities: anti-inflammatory therapy, treatment of a violation of the synthesis of thyroid hormones, etc.

Herbal medicine

The main medicinal herbs contributing to the treatment of uterine polyps are the red brush, hellebore and the forest uterus. Their action is based on the restoration of hormonal levels. The best effect is achieved with their combined reception.

However, such treatment of endometrial polyps without surgery, like hormone therapy, will not dissolve the polyps and will not even reduce them in size, but will only prevent their growth and the formation of new foci.

Regular visits to the gynecologist with a preventive purpose - the main recommendation for women who want to maintain their health. In case of any changes on the part of the genitals (pain, discharge, bleeding), you should immediately seek medical help.

The consequences of uterine polyps, complications

  • Anemia due to blood loss.
  • Infertility
  • Polyposis of the uterus.
  • Oncology (extremely rare in endometrial glandular fibroid polyp).
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