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Polyp what is it? Types, causes and symptoms of occurrence, treatment methods

What it is? A polyp is a neoplasm of a benign nature that occurs on the mucous walls of organs, often on the membranes of the nose, intestine or uterus. Atypical cell growth can cause the transition of benign pathology to malignant. Polyps rebirth is determined by biopsy. Treatment depends on the size and location.

Classification: polyp species

polyp types


By education there are the following types:

  • Neoplasms arising at sites of inflammation;
  • Neoplastic - formed from atypical cells;
  • Hyperplastic - appear from the proliferation of healthy tissue.

According to the form there are two types:

  • growths that are attached to the organs with the help of a thin process, "legs";
  • education, which have a broad basis.

Polyps are more often benign, but can develop into a malignant form.

Inflammatory and hyperplastic species are often only benign, while neoplastic types are of both forms. Malignant tumors produce metastases that spread throughout the body.

The danger is that it is not always possible to detect pathology due to the small size of the “outgrowths”. In the later stages, the treatment regimen is more complicated.


The causes of polyps

Depending on the localization emit general and local education.

The first are:

  1. Hereditary factor, the genetic characteristics of the organism, the tendency to neoplasms.
  2. Bad habits that adversely affect the work of all body systems, which leads to a weakening of the immune system and the development of disease.
  3. Inflammation, undertreated diseases.
  4. Violations of the hormonal background.
  5. Age. In children, the likelihood of developing polyps is less than in adults.
The appearance of polyps in the nose

The appearance of polyps in the nose

Local reasons include:

  1. Persistent runny nose, allergic reactions.
  2. Dysbacteriosis, inflammatory colitis.
  3. Diseases of the genitourinary system.
  4. In women in the uterus and on its neck, the formation of fibrous and glandular polyps can be triggered by a large number of abortions, hormonal disorders.

These are the main reasons that lead to the formation of pathology. However, the body of each person is individual, there may be other factors.

Symptoms of polyps, clinical picture

At the initial stage there is no disease clinic. When polyps grow, characteristic symptoms appear, namely:

  • When polyps in the stomach, pain occurs, appetite may disappear, salivation increases;
  • If new growths are formed in the intestine, it leads to its obstruction, periodic pain;
  • The polyp of the rectum (when damaged) causes a characteristic discoloration of the feces;
  • Polyps in the nose cause a constant feeling of congestion, there may be headaches, shortness of breath;
  • Symptoms of formations in the uterus are problems with the menstrual cycle, abdominal pain.

However, very often the presence of the disease is detected only by ultrasound.

Below we briefly consider the most frequent cases of polyps and methods of treatment.

What is dangerous glandular polyp in the uterus?

What is dangerous glandular polyp in the uterus Any pathological growths of the reproductive organs of a woman must be diagnosed and removed in a timely manner. Endometrial glandular polyps appear before the menopausal period and are prone to degeneration into cancer.

The cause of the appearance depends on the hormonal and inflammatory processes of the uterus.

They are located in hard to reach places: in the corners of the uterus. Therefore, often after removal, a part of the leg remains, which is quickly restored.

The change in the structure of the glandular polyp of the endometrium is called adenomatosis, which belongs to precancerous conditions.

Symptoms of a polyp do not appear for a long time and a woman may not be aware of its existence if it does not undergo periodic examinations by a gynecologist.

A glandular polyp in the uterus is dangerous for bleeding that occurs between periods and leads to anemia.

After childbearing age, a fibrous type pathology occurs in the uterus. These are dense educations, single, average size. Physical signs and symptoms are absent.

Endometrial formations are treated with hormone therapy and surgical removal of the polyp.

What is a nose polyp?

They appear on the nasal mucosa. The cause of neoplasm most often is a chronic rhinitis.

The mucous membrane is constantly in the inflamed state, as a result, favorable conditions are created for the formation of polyps.

This disease occurs more often in men than in women.

Polyps in the nose are divided into two types:

  1. Anthrax. Children are subject to this look. The neoplasm develops only on one side, mainly from the maxillary sinus.
  2. Etmoidal - more inherent in adults. The disease develops on both sides of the nasal septum.

There are three stages of the disease:

  • In the first stage, the growth overlaps a small part of the space in the nose.
  • In the second stage, the polyps grow stronger and begin to cover a sufficiently large part of the nasal cavity.
  • For the third stage is characterized by a significant growth of tumors, the nasal passage is completely blocked.

The treatment of this disease depends on the stage of development, signs and symptoms. In one case, medical methods will help, and in the other only surgical intervention.

Treatment of polyps - delete or not?

Polyps treatment The best way to treat polyps is removal. , то чаще всего новообразования не трогают. However, if they do not interfere, do not increase in size , then most often the neoplasms do not touch. In this case, medical treatment methods are used, which sometimes help to reduce the size of the education.

The pathology, which was formed from atypical cells, must be removed - it can turn into a malignant form.

In addition, if the tumor is without a leg and has a sufficiently large size, then it is also removed to avoid rebirth into a cancerous tumor.

Prevention does not exist, the main thing is not to miss the scheduled check-ups at the doctors, so that the disease can be detected and started treatment in time. Indeed, in the presence of polyps, the risk of their transformation into an oncological form increases.

Methods for removing polyps in the nose

The formation is not amenable to drug treatment. There are surgical procedures for removing polyps in the nose. Multiple growths are cut off by a Lange loop under local anesthesia.

Methods for removing polyps in the nose

The operation is performed in a sitting position. After removal of the polyps, the nose is plugged. The next fourth day, the patient is sent to outpatient monitoring. After such a procedure, the pathology quickly grows back.

Endoscopic removal allows you to simultaneously adjust the septum and produce diagnostic studies. The patient is in the hospital day. The recovery period passes quickly, without complications.

Minimally invasive microdebride removal - low-impact manipulation. It allows you to penetrate the sinuses, correct the defects of the nose and sinuses.

Laser removal is carried out on an outpatient basis. The operation proceeds without bleeding and complications.

In pregnancy, the removal of polyps is contraindicated.

The disease most often does not give any symptoms in the early stages, so it is quite difficult to detect. Symptoms appear only when the disease lasts for quite a long time.

To identify the growth of the mucous membrane, endoscopes are mainly used - special optical devices, thanks to which accurate results are obtained that allow you to choose the right treatment tactics.


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