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Polyarthritis: symptoms and treatment, forms, prevention

In the inflammatory process in the joint, doctors talk about the development of arthritis, but if the pathological process is detected simultaneously in several joints, then it is a matter of polyarthritis.

Content

Polyarthritis - what is it?

Polyarthritis

Polyarthritis is a disease characterized by the development of the inflammatory process simultaneously in several (most often symmetrical) joints. The disease progresses rapidly, it breaks the normal way of life of a person and can lead to disability.

The inflammatory process in joints can develop for numerous reasons, the most frequent of which are:

  • Postponed infectious diseases (eg, angina), as a result of which an infectious agent with a blood stream enters the joint and provokes the development of a pathological process in it;
  • Obtained serious injuries to the joints;
  • Subcooling;
  • Autoimmune diseases;
  • Genetic predisposition;
  • The presence of foci of chronic infection in the body;
  • Allergic diseases;
  • Disturbance of blood supply in the joints.

To find out the cause and form of the disease is important for determining the effective tactics of treating polyarthritis, the symptoms serve as an important diagnostic criterion.

Signs and forms of polyarthritis

Clinically, the polyarthritis, regardless of the causes of the onset, is almost the same, however, depending on the factors that affect the development of the inflammatory process in the joints, the following forms of the disease are distinguished:

  • Rheumatoid polyarthritis - develops as a result of the transferred infectious diseases, unsuccessful vaccination, against which the thymus begins to produce antibodies that destroy their own cells, in particular, the tissues of the joint;
  • Psoriatic polyarthritis - the disease develops against a background of prolonged course and progression of psoriasis;
  • Infectious polyarthritis - occurs against the background of infectious and inflammatory diseases, as a complication;
  • Crystalline polyarthritis (nodular) - develops as a result of disturbances in metabolic processes in the body, characterized by the deposition and accumulation of crystals of mineral salts in the tissues of the joint;
  • Bechterew's disease - this type of polyarthritis affects mainly the joints of the spinal column, as a result of which the patient's complete disability gradually develops;
  • Reactive polyarthritis - occurs against the background of the course of chlamydia as a complication of infection.

Symptoms of polyarthritis

Symptoms of polyarthritis

Symptoms of polyarthritis, photos

Signs of the inflammatory process in the joints with any form of the disease are almost identical clinical symptoms of polyarthritis:

  1. Pain in the joints, which increases with loads, movement;
  2. Swelling and redness of the skin over the inflamed and affected joint;
  3. Local hyperthermia, sometimes elevated body temperature to subfebrile indicators;
  4. Stiffness of movements, which is most pronounced after a sleep in the morning - is due to the accumulation over the night in the cavity of the affected joint pathological fluid that limits the full motion;
  5. Chilliness of limbs, numbness;
  6. Gradual deformity of the extremities (with polyarthritis of the fingers and polyarthritis of the legs)

In crystalline polyarthritis, as a result of the accumulation and deposition of mineral salts of movement, the limbs of the patient become severely limited, and seals in the form of nodules are clearly visible under the skin, which is why this form is also called nodular polyarthritis.

When such clinical symptoms of polyarthritis appear, the patient should consult a doctor as soon as possible for a detailed examination.

To diagnose for an experienced specialist is not particularly difficult - to determine the form of the disease will help the patient's medical history, characteristic signs and symptoms of polyarthritis and a detailed examination, which includes:

  • Revmoprobes;
  • Blood tests - general and biochemistry;
  • X-ray examination.

Treatment of polyarthritis, drugs

Treatment of polyarthritis, drugs

For each form of joint polyarthritis treatment can be different depending on the symptoms:

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - quickly remove puffiness of the skin over the affected joint, reduce pain, normalize temperature, increase the amplitude of movements;
  2. Glucocorticosteroids - are prescribed for severe disease, sometimes in the form of injections directly into the cavity of the inflamed joint. Preparations of this group quickly remove inflammation, pain, swelling, normalize the motor ability of the joint;
  3. Immunomodulators - increase immunity and stimulate tissue regeneration processes;
  4. Physiotherapeutic procedures outside the period of exacerbation - can significantly improve the quality of life of the patient, increase the mobility of affected joints.

When treating crystalline polyarthritis, the patient is prescribed additional drugs that normalize metabolic processes in the body, as well as therapeutic nutrition.

Diet is to limit the consumption of baking, chocolate, spices, spicy foods, fatty meat, subproducts, coffee, alcohol. In the diet should include more fresh seasonal vegetables and fruits, fish, sour-milk products.

How to treat polyarthritis can effectively be explained only by a specialist, after comprehensive diagnosis, determining the causes and form of the disease. Remember that no folk methods will relieve you of the problem, but will only lead to the progression of pathology and the development of complications.

Complications of polyarthritis

Most complications develop with rheumatoid form of polyarthritis and are caused by the involvement of the muscles attached to the affected joints in the pathological process. As a result of the spread of pathology to the fibers of the muscle tissue, the functioning of the adjacent internal organs is also disrupted, resulting in the following complications of polyarthritis in the patient:

  • Diseases of the heart and blood vessels - inflammation of the heart membranes, violation of blood supply to the heart muscle and ischemia;
  • Atrophy of muscles, decreased mobility and self-service capabilities;
  • Loss of appetite and discomfort in the work of the digestive tract, against which the patient loses weight and weakens;
  • Deformity of limbs;
  • Loss of sensitivity at the fingertips, tingling sensation, numbness;
  • Minor hemorrhages under the skin;
  • Increased sweating;
  • Violation of metabolic processes, osteoporosis, propensity to fractures.

Prevention of polyarthritis

Since many factors can cause the development of polyarthritis, in order to prevent the inflammatory process in the joints, the patient should try not to allow their influence on the body, namely:

  • A balanced and balanced diet;
  • To lead an active and mobile way of life;
  • Timely treat infectious diseases, do not allow their transition into a chronic form;
  • Avoid injury and joint damage;
  • Do not supercool the body;
  • Do not subject the joints to excessive stress.

Persons with hereditary predisposition to the development of polyarthritis should, after 45 years, on a regular basis, for prevention, to see a doctor and take blood tests.

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