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Pneumonia: treatments, antibiotics, signs in an adult

Pneumonia is a group of infectious lung diseases that are characterized by inflammatory changes in the alveoli and interstitial tissue.

Allocate primary and secondary pneumonia. The first group includes pneumonia, which occurs in relatively healthy people due to hypothermia and other adverse factors.

Secondary pneumonia develops against the background of another pathology (chronic diseases, toxic effects, radiation damage, etc.).

Content

What can cause pneumonia?

Pneumonia

Before the main causative agent of the disease was pneumococcus bacterium. Now other microorganisms are acquiring a large role in the development of pathology.
Depending on the cause of development, the following types of this disease are distinguished:

  1. Bacterial They cause various types of pathogenic bacteria (pneumococci, staphylococci, streptococci, etc.).
  2. Viral. They are caused by adenoviruses, influenza viruses and parainfluenza and others.
  3. Parasitic.
  4. Fungal.

Predisposing factors for the development of this disease are:

  • hypothermia;
  • poor working and living conditions;
  • chronic upper respiratory tract diseases;
  • intoxication;
  • traumatic injury, etc.

Signs of pneumonia in an adult

Symptoms and signs of the disease are determined by many factors: the type of pathogen, the prevalence of the pathological process, the presence of concomitant aggravating pathology.

Signs of pneumonia in an adult

Signs of pneumonia in an adult photo

The main complaints that bother the patient are:

1. Chest pain. Pain can be deep and superficial. The cause of superficial pain usually becomes intercostal neuralgia. Such pain increases with inhalation and palpation of the chest.

Deep pains are caused by inflammation of the phrenic nerves. This pain is very intense and gives to the abdomen.

2. Phlegm. In the first days of the discharge may not be. In the future, sputum appears: purulent, mixed with blood, frothy and different, depending on the type of pathogen and the extent of the lesion.

A phlegm with a putrid odor may indicate gangrene or lung abscess.

3. Cough. At the onset of the disease, the cough is dry, painful and persistent. With the appearance of sputum, it gradually disappears.

4. Dyspnea is a person's feeling that he does not have enough air to breathe. Appears after coughing or due to pain during breathing.

In addition, the patient is worried about the symptoms of general intoxication: fever, headaches, loss of appetite and others. In elderly people and persons with weak immunity, confusion may be observed during the illness.

Pneumonia treatment methods - hospital and antibiotics?

Treatment of pneumonia in the hospital

Treatment of pneumonia, in most cases, is carried out in a hospital. This is especially true for patients with severe forms of the disease, increasing intoxication and signs of respiratory and heart failure.

Disease therapy is complex and includes:

  • Bed rest and diet. During the fever, the patient is prescribed bed rest and drinking regimen, as well as a mechanically and thermally sparing diet.
  • Treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics. Antibiotic therapy should begin as early as possible and take place under bacteriological control.

This means that before starting treatment of pneumonia in adults, sputum should be taken for seeding in order to determine the type and sensitivity of the pathogen.

Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia

Use of mucolytics and antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia

Therapy itself begins even before the result of seeding and its effectiveness is evaluated clinically in 3-4 days. If during this time the antibiotic did not show its effect, it will be changed to a drug from another group, taking into account the seeding data.

In most cases, antibiotics from the penicillin group and sulfonamides are used. The specific drug is chosen by the doctor who treats the patient.

  • If viruses become the cause of pneumonia, then antiviral agents are prescribed in combination with drugs that stimulate the immune system.
  • In Candida pneumonia, antimycotic drugs are indicated (Nystatin, Levorin, etc.).
  • To improve the purification of the bronchi, mucolytics (ACC) and expectorant drugs (thermopsis, marshmallow, etc.) are used.
  • With a painful cough use antitussive drugs (codeine).
  • If allergic edema develops under the action of bacterial toxins, antihistamines or hormones are used.
  • Physiotherapy (massage, ozokerite, UHF, etc.) and breathing exercises.

Important! Elderly people often develop stagnant pneumonia due to prolonged stays in bed. Treatment of pneumonia of this type in the elderly includes therapeutic exercises in bed, breathing exercises and a special massage. All these procedures are selected by a specialist and performed under his control.

Treatment of pneumonia at home

Treatment of pneumonia at home Home treatment of pneumonia can be carried out with an uncomplicated focal form, provided that the patient complies with all the requirements for the regimen, diet and medication.

At home, the patient is allocated a separate room, dishes and linens. Regularly air the room and carry out wet cleaning. Regime in the first days of illness bed, then move to half-bed and home.

Food consists of various dishes rich in vitamins and microelements. During the period of fever recommend acidified drink, fruit drinks, fruit drinks and mineral water. In case of severe intoxication in the first days, the patient can eat broths, compotes and vegetables.

Selection of the treatment regimen is carried out by a doctor who is observing the patient Thus, the standard treatment regimen includes:

  • antibiotics with regard to the suspected pathogen;
  • antipyretic and anti-inflammatory;
  • expectorant;
  • pain relief - painkillers;
  • mucolytics and expectorant.

Traditional medicine offers a variety of tinctures and decoctions that will help remove sputum from the lungs and strengthen the immune defense. For these purposes, they use: marshmallow, thermopsis, aloe, ginseng and other herbs.

During the recovery period, physiotherapy and massage are prescribed to improve the blood supply to the lungs and activate the respiratory processes.

The choice of drugs and method for the treatment of pneumonia is determined by the patient's condition and the severity of this pathology. Uncomplicated pneumonia can be tried to cure at home, but if necessary, you should be ready to go to the hospital to avoid complications.

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