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Mumps: symptoms and treatment in children and adults, prevention

What it is? Mumps is a disease of viral etiology, characterized by fever, general intoxication of the body, the development of sialadenitis ( inflammation of the salivary glands ), damage to the glandular tissues of other organs and a network of CNS structures.

Causes a disease - Paramyxoviridae virus, a genus of Paramyxovirus, tolerates a cold environment (–70 ° C) and within 10 minutes it loses activity and dies when heated (+70 ° C).

The latent period of the virus ranges from one and a half to three weeks. The infectious source is a sick person, highlighting the virus with saliva and spreading it by aerosol (airborne) at the height of the disease - for the first five days.

The recovering patient is no longer a viral source (after the 9th day of illness). Infection is possible through contact - through personal belongings and objects belonging to the patient. It is not excluded infection and the vertical way - intrauterine. Subject to infection mainly boys aged 1 year to puberty (15 years).

People who have not had parotitis are susceptible to the virus throughout their lives, which explains the possibility of infecting patients of different age groups. Typical seasonality of the disease - winter-spring. It manifests itself in isolated cases and in the form of outbreaks of mumps. In people who have had an infection, there remains a strong immunity to the virus.

Content

Signs and forms of mumps

Parotitis

According to etiological signs, parotitis has two forms of manifestation - epidemic parotitis, due to the infectious nature of the paramyxovirus and non-epidemic, which can occur for other reasons. Each of them has its own clinical characteristics and manifestations.

К примеру, при типичном естественном течении, отмечаются проявления железистого поражения, патологии нервной системы или их комбинации. 1) For example, in a typical natural course, manifestations of a glandular lesion, pathology of the nervous system, or a combination thereof are noted. The clinic of glandular mumps manifests itself solely by pathological reactions in the glandular tissues (mainly the parotid region). The pathological process can develop both in isolation and with the involvement of other glands in the process - for example, the submandibular.

Проявляясь клиникой нервного поражения пораженческий процесс изолированно направлен на ЦНС, вызывая менингеальную и менингоэнцефалитную симптоматику. 2) Being manifested by the clinic of the nervous lesion, the defeat process is isolated in isolation from the central nervous system, causing meningeal and meningoencephalitic symptoms. The pathogen manifests its aggression even in the period of asymptomatic latent course, one or two days before the onset of characteristic symptomatology.

При комбинированном течении, паротит может проявляться исключительно патологиями желез, либо только ЦНС, но и вовлекать в патологический процесс одновременно две клинические формы. 3) With a combined course, the parotid disease can manifest itself solely by the pathologies of the glands, or only by the central nervous system, but it can also involve two clinical forms in the pathological process at the same time.

Symptoms of Mumps

Symptoms of mumps manifest as manifest acute infection accompanied by processes of inflammation in the parotid glands (mainly with unilateral lesion). Purulent processes rarely develop. Inflamed mainly glands ear zone.

Gland salivary, sublingual and submaxillary, milk, pancreas and sex glands can simultaneously be affected by inflammatory reactions.

Development is possible:

  • pathological inflammation of the peripheral nerves;
  • diffuse pathologies in the kidney;
  • cerebral disorders (encephalitis);
  • meningeal symptoms;
  • inflammatory damage to the heart muscle;
  • pathological changes in the pancreas.

Symptoms of mumps are accompanied by febrile fever, muscle tremors and fever, signs of asthenia (general weakness) and migraines. Unilateral or bilateral swelling of the glands in the ear area is reflected by a sharp pain when eating or talking. The skin over the swollen glands stretched shines and gleams. Perhaps the spread of swelling in the cervical zone.

The non-epidemic form of mumps develops mainly due to:

  • traumatic injury to the salivary glands;
  • obstruction of their outflow ducts;
  • hypothermia or salivary pathology;
  • infection with bacterial flora from the oral mucosa.

Severe manifestation of the disease is observed with background pathologies of an infectious nature caused by coccal infection (pneumonia, SARS, typhoid, epidemic encephalitis and other infections). The pathogen penetrates the glands of the ear zone through the excretory ducts, lymph or blood.

Symptoms are similar to signs of mumps with a characteristic manifestation of asthenia, high fever and xerostomia (dry mouth).

Symptoms of mumps in children

Symptoms of mumps in children

Many factors contribute to the development of mumps in a child, but the risk of increasing the incidence is due to a weakened immunity, especially after seasonal cold periods - winter, spring. Or due to frequent colds, which were treated with long-term treatment with corticosteroids and antibiotic therapy.

The main factor that increases the risk of disease in children is the lack of vaccination.

The first symptoms of mumps in children are similar to the symptoms of common cold infections. The child has a fever, chills, articular aches and muscle pain. After 2-3 days, the symptoms are complemented by inflammatory reactions in the submandibular salivary glands with the manifestation of the main signs of the disease.

The appearance of hyperthermia with a high temperature, which is kept for a week. Normalization and a new surge in temperature indicate the development of new lesions. There is severe pain in the glands in the ear area, they increase and swell.

The swelling of the face gives it a pear-shaped shape, resembling the head of a pig ("pig"). A symptom specific to mumps appears - the ear lobes bulging to the sides and the head drawn into the shoulders, with bilateral localization of inflammations. Pain symptoms are aggravated by eating and opening the mouth. Sometimes pain gives to the ear itself.

May manifest itself:

  • intermittent or permanent tinnitus (noise, ringing in the ears);
  • signs of asthenia, dry mouth, insomnia;
  • hyperhidrosis and migraine;
  • the voice becomes "nasal" and muffled;
  • swelling in the anterior zone of the ear with subsequent spread to its posterior region;
  • deforming puffiness of the large genital lips in girls of puberty.
  • swelling and swelling of the testes in adolescents and men, which subsequently threatens them with atrophy.

Mumps in children can have an erased or even asymptomatic course, manifesting itself as a mild, moderate and severe course.

  1. 1) The clinic of an easy current of "mumps" is marked by a rapid rise in temperature, but it keeps for a very short time. Only fascial capsules of the salivary glands are affected.
  2. 2) Medium-sized clinic due to prolonged fever, inflammatory reactions extending to the glands of other organs. The child has signs of general weakness, impaired appetite and sleep.
  3. 3) With severe pathology occurs extensive damage to the glands of many organs in the body, spreading to the central nervous system. Against this background, the development of meningeal signs, deafness and pancreatitis.

Consequences of mumps in children

The most dangerous consequence of mumps in boys is orchitis. Usually the disease is complicated in non-vaccinated children in adolescence. Has a severe form, the inflammatory process takes place immediately in two testicles. Often ends with infertility.

With the defeat of the pancreas virus, its structural change occurs which leads to the development of pancreatitis. Often it is promoted by secretory disorders in the production of a universal hormone - insulin in the body, which can provoke diabetes.

In adolescent girls, oophoritis may develop (inflammation of the ovaries), it is rare and does not threaten with infertility. Thyroiditis is a rare complication. The consequence of it may be autoimmune pathologies provoked by inflammation reactions in the thyroid gland.

Selection of inadequate treatment provokes the development of meningitis , meningoencephalitis and the pathology of the auditory nerve. Damage to the central nervous system may occur pleural inflammation of the lungs and kidneys, multiple lesions of nerve fibers in the limbs or arthritis.

Treatment of mumps in children and adults

Treatment of mumps in children and adults The main treatment for mumps in children and adults is symptomatic. With signs of abnormalities in the pancreas (endocrine and exocrine), the need for a strict diet is unequivocal. Provocative food is excluded from the diet - fried, salty and spicy, smoked and fatty foods. Adhere to a sparing diet recommended another year after the disease. Violation of these rules can cause diabetes.

A cold compress is applied to the affected area. If the pain syndrome is strongly pronounced, drugs of spasmolytics are prescribed - “No-Shpa” or “Droterin”, dyspepsia disorders are stopped by enzymatic means “Creon” or “Mezim”.

Therapy is carried out detoxification, the method of intravenous saline.

  1. As an etiotropic therapy prescribed antiviral drugs - "Isoprinosine" (the dosage and duration of the course is determined by the doctor).
  2. Immunomodulatory (Interferon, Viferon) and immunostimulating (Cycloferon) agents.
  3. Non-steroidal antipyretic drugs - Nurofen, Paracetamol or Ibuprofen
  4. As a local treatment - dry heat in the form of compresses on the affected area.

During the treatment of mumps in children, it is recommended to limit the activity, it is desirable milk-vegetable diet, local warming with dry compresses. Swollen places can be lubricated (not rubbed) camphor oil.

With the development of purulent inflammation in the ear, ear douching is made with a slightly warm pharmaceutical chamomile solution.

It is necessary to monitor the hygiene of the child’s mouth - a mandatory rinsing with a weak, slightly pink manganese solution or a pharmacy solution of boric acid. Conducted vitamin therapy. Desirable abundant use of fortified drinks, including adults.

In severe purulent processes, surgical intervention is possible.

Mumps prevention, vaccination

Mumps prevention is caused by vaccination and revaccination (repeated vaccinations). Apply triple vaccine (trivaccine). Vaccination against measles, rubella, parotitis, for the first time children are given at the age of one year, followed by revaccination at six years.

Previously vaccinated children, vaccination is done at 13 years of age. Each subsequent vaccination is carried out after 9 years.

Usually one-year-old children tolerate vaccination well. Negative reactions from vaccination are very rare, but you should still be aware of them. In babies, this may be manifested by a slight increase in temperature, redness and compaction in the area of ​​the injection, or slightly enlarged lymph nodes.

Such symptoms arise in a delayed type of reaction, within one or two weeks - this is due to the introduction of severely weakened viruses into the body.

The reaction of microorganisms to antibodies manifests itself in the form of an immune response precisely at this time - at the peak of the development of antibodies. This is a completely natural process and no treatment is required. But in adolescents and adults, these symptoms can be supplemented:

  • allergic rash on any parts of the body;
  • parotid and cervical lymphadenitis;
  • signs of arthralgia and arthritis.

This is usually due to improper vaccination. A common cause of complications after vaccination in children is ignoring contraindications and a complete examination of the child. Before vaccination, he must be completely healthy.

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