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Pinworms: symptoms and treatment in adults and children, drugs

Many human diseases provoke various types of parasites that enter the body. Our most frequent "guests", worms (worms) of the nematode family, known as pinworms.

They are characterized by parasitism in the lower part of the small and the upper part of the large intestine. Not only the gastrointestinal tract causes dysfunctions, but also pathological processes in various organs.

Content

General information about pinworms

The parasite has a round, spindle-shaped body of a milky color. The length of an adult female worm can reach up to one and a half centimeters, the male does not exceed 6 cm. The tail part of the female is pointed, due to which the parasite gets its name. The tail of the male is crocheted.

Pinworms: symptoms and treatment in adults

On the worm body there is a special suction device, which provides their suction and fixation on the intestinal walls. Contagious individuals only "female".

After pinning, males of pinworms come out with feces, and the female begins to accumulate and form eggs (10-15 thousand).

Inside the intestinal lumen, the worms do not multiply, since the female’s vagina’s muscle beetle, without oxygen, is in a state of spasm.

Under the weight of the enlarged uterus, the female moves from the place of suction and, with the assistance of intestinal motility, it is lowered into the lower part of the large intestine.

During the migration period, female pinworms and eggs ripen in the uterus. The formation of tadpole-like larvae occurs. Usually, during a night's sleep, when the valve apparatus (sphincter) of the human colon is relaxed, the female comes out into the folds of the perianal zone and perineum.

Under the influence of oxygen, muscle relaxation of the vagina of the worm occurs and pinworms lay eggs with larvae along the entire crawling path. Reach the infectious larvae already on the host.

Uncleanedness and impaired temperature homeostasis (moisture) of the skin in the anus area, can lead to a delay of clutches. The "wandering" of females continues through the genital tract, through the uterus can penetrate into the peritoneum, where they are often found in the encapsulated form.

Having finished laying, they die. In the course of movement of the helminth appears itching, leading to scratching and seeding hands. Eggs can wait for the stage of infection under the nails, because they can maintain vitality outside the body for up to three weeks.

Once in the human intestine, the larvae ripen within 5 hours and are released into the digestive tract by the action of enzymes. After a couple of weeks, they reach sexual maturity and continue the new cycle of development.

What is the effect of the parasite on the body?

The basis of the pathogenic effect of the helminth is due to various mechanisms of factors influencing the surface layer of the gastrointestinal tract:

  • its chemoreceptors irritate;
  • increase mechanoreceptor excitation;
  • violate the secretory function and intestinal motility.

As a result, the risk of developing various pathologies increases - inflammatory processes in the mucous membranes of the duodenum, the walls of the stomach and small intestine.

The ratio of microflora changes, which leads to the development of dysbacteriosis. Pinworms in adults are often found in appendicitis itself, during operations.

There are cases of perineal-rectal, intestinal fistulas and paraproctitis in infected patients. Due to a long-term irritant factor, dermatitis, eczema (dry and moist) on skin folds of the perianal zone are formed.

Sometimes, the pathology extends far beyond the crotch area. Migrating worms can cause vaginitis, endometritis or vulvitis.

Ways of pinworm infection

pinworm infection

The main source of invasion is an infected person. Infection occurs through contact through hands, toys, or contaminated food. It is not excluded the factor of infection by inhalation of dust, which contains the microscopic eggs of the female helminth.

Studies have shown that eggs can be found on any objects touched by human hands. A specific role, in the form of peddlers, is assigned to flies.

On the skin of a person or his linen maturation of helminth eggs to the infectious stage, occurs within six hours. At the optimum temperature (up to 40 ° C) and air humidity (70%), eggs develop successfully, but die at high temperatures (above 55 ° C), dryness and ultraviolet.

People of any age can be infected, over the years, susceptibility to invasion does not fall. The main risk group consists of small children.

Pinworm Symptoms in Adults

Pinworm Symptoms in Adults

The first clinical signs usually appear after two, three days of infection, but often go unnoticed. When reinvasion (reinfection), the signs of pinworms in adults appear after one and a half, two weeks. During this period, the number of adult worms exceeds thousands.

Signs of infection with pinworms in adults manifest themselves:

  • severe itching in the anal area;
  • bloating and abdominal pain;
  • rumbling in the abdomen and false urge to defecate;
  • frequent unformed chair;
  • defecation with blood (sometimes).

Symptoms are most pronounced in the first week of reinvasion. In chronic infection (1-2 months), the main symptom of pinworm infection is itchy symptoms in a wide area of ​​the perianal area.

In the course of its development, “uninvited guests” emit a large amount of toxins (a product of metabolism), causing general poisoning of the whole organism of an infected person. Especially hard, it affects children.

See also the common symptoms of worms in humans.

Symptoms of pinworms in children - especially manifestations

Symptoms of pinworms in children Pinworm symptoms in children are primarily manifested by changes in the child’s nervous system:

  • mood swings;
  • tearfulness and nervousness;
  • decreased appetite and fatigue;
  • bad sleep and headaches.

Helminthiasis reduces the overall immunity of the child, it is more susceptible to infections.

In addition, numerous studies have proved the immunosuppressive effect of pinworms on the child’s body, in particular the suppression of immune functions after anti-diphtheria vaccines.

In almost 20% of cases after DTP, antibodies are not formed at all, and in 15% - a very small amount.

The most unpleasant thing is that the continuous carding of highly irritated places - the urinary organs and the anus zone, leads to early sexual desire, self-satisfaction (masturbation) and dysuria. So, as preventive measures, and treatment of pinworms for the symptoms of infection should be immediate.

Inspection and treatment of pinworms in adults and children

treatment of pinworms in adults and children

Diagnostic examination is carried out by scraping the folds of the anal zone. For this, an imprint of the surveyed area is taken with a special sterile adhesive tape.

  1. For accuracy of analysis, the procedure is carried out three times - every other day or sequentially. The most reliable data is considered for scrapings taken in the morning before stool and washing.
  2. When examining blood, there is a moderate level of leukocytes and an increase in the level of eosinophil cells.

In the feces, pinworm eggs are rarely detected, since the helminth lays them outside the body, so such a diagnosis is useless.

As treatment for pinworms in adults, effective anthelmintic drugs are used.

  1. Vermox (Mebendazole), interrupting the secretion of glucose from worms and their death. It is taken once (dose-10mg.).
  2. The drug "Kombantrin" and its analogues, causing a blockade of the muscular sludge apparatus. A single use before a meal at a dosage is 10 mg. / 1 ​​kg. weight of the patient.
  3. "Worm" - the active ingredient of the drug causes the death of both adult parasites and their eggs.
  4. "Piperazin" dosage is determined individually. Even a single dose ensures the disposal of parasites in 90% of cases.
  5. Effective preparations for pinworms - "Carbendacin" and "Albendozol). The first acts as a paralyzing factor, depriving the worms of the ability to suck to the intestinal walls, the second - affects the muscle tissue of the parasite, accelerating its death. “Albendozol - single dose of 400 mg. "Karbendatsin" - 10mg. per day for three doses.

To prevent nocturnal itch, apply cleansing enemas that wash out the parasites - baking soda 0.5 tsp. / Cup of boiled warm water.

pinworms drugs

Or use an external anesthetic (cream, ointment, gel) overnight to apply around the anal area. In order to achieve the full effect of treatment, all people from his close environment should be involved in the healing process.

For effective treatment, both adults and children need to be confident in the diagnosis - do not self-medicate, go through tests and receive confirmation of the disease.

Preventive measures

Strict observance of a number of preventive measures will help prevent infection with pinworms:

  • careful hand hygiene;
  • timely cutting of nail plates;
  • frequent change of underwear;
  • thorough washing in the morning and evening;
  • compulsory ironing of bed linen and underwear;
  • disinfecting wet daily cleaning;
  • use of special rectal swabs.

Three weeks after the course of treatment, a follow-up examination should be carried out.

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