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Complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, causes and prevention

Diabetes mellitus is one of the diseases that is life threatening by the rapid development of complications. The disease is distinguished by a huge list of possible consequences affecting various organs and systems of the body.

After confirming the diagnosis, the patient is obliged to develop new food and behavioral habits - to direct all forces to the prevention of complications.

Content

Causes of complications of diabetes

Complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 - 2

Complications in diabetes mellitus type 1–2 develop due to a lack of insulin or a violation of its interaction with the cells of the body. Thus, in diabetes of the first type, insulin deficiency arises from the fact that specialized cells that produce this hormone are recognized by the immune system as foreign - it produces antibodies against them, causing death.

This type of diabetes is related to autoimmune diseases. Type 1 diabetes has a genetic predisposition. The mechanism may trigger infections, stress, etc.

Insulin in the second type of diabetes mellitus can be produced in the right amount, but the body's cells become insensitive to it. Often this phenomenon is observed in obesity, as the adipose tissue does not respond to insulin.

The pancreas has to work with a load, producing more and more insulin. At some point, its compensatory mechanisms are depleted, and insulin production decreases.

The function of insulin is to deliver glucose to the cells of the body for use as an energy material. Unused cells glucose, circulates in the blood, excreted in the urine. Cells start to suffer from lack of energy, metabolic processes are disturbed.

Complications of type 1 diabetes

Complications of type 1 diabetes, have an acute course and develop very quickly. In most cases, a diabetic needs the help of a doctor.

1. Ketoacidosis - when insulin levels drop, ketone bodies are detected in the blood and glucose in an excess amount. If the insulin deficiency is not filled in time, then ketoacidotic coma can develop in a short time.

2. Hyperosmolar coma. The reason for its development is an increase in blood sugar. The cells lose water, dehydration occurs, and in the absence of therapy, death can occur.

3. Hypoglycemic coma. Occurs in the case of an erroneous administration of insulin in doses substantially higher than those chosen by the doctor. The brain is difficult to tolerate glucose deficiency, therefore, with a sharp drop in the level, the normal functioning of the brain is disrupted.

This causes clouding or complete loss of consciousness, and later to whom.

Complications of diabetes in children are dangerous for their high mortality and manifest as ketoacidotic and hypoglycemic coma.

Late forms are similar to those with type 2 disease — they have a slow but progressive course.

Complications of type 2 diabetes

Prevention of complications - the risk of developing diabetic foot syndrome

Risk of developing diabetic foot syndrome

With type 2 diabetes, the disease for many years can go unnoticed. Often the disease is detected completely unexpectedly, at the time of testing for another reason, or only at the time of detection of complications.

  1. Hyperosmolar coma.
  2. Hypoglycemic coma occurs somewhat less frequently.
  3. Eye damage. In this case, the lens and retina suffer. This is manifested by the development of cataracts, hemorrhages and retinal detachment, which leads to a decrease in vision or its complete loss.
  4. Kidney damage - the gradual loss of their functions. Protein reabsorption is impaired and it appears in the urine. Over the years, scarring grows in the kidneys, which removes the kidney tissue.
  5. Vascular complications are pathological changes in the walls of vessels of large and small caliber. Manifested by increased fragility, hemorrhage, thrombosis and the development of atherosclerosis. Diabetic heart attacks and strokes are the main cause of death.
  6. Neuropathy - changes in the nervous tissue. Manifested by a violation of sensitivity, pain along the nerve fibers.
  7. On the part of the brain revealed diabetic encephalopathy. Manifested in the form of depression, inability to adequately respond to events, etc.

Late complications of diabetes

Retinal detachment

Retinal detachment

By late complications are meant those clinical manifestations that develop several years after the onset of the disease. Such complications, unfortunately, sooner or later manifest themselves in almost all patients, regardless of the type of diabetes that they have.

With type 2 diabetes, most people learn about their illness only after the development of these complications.

1. Angiopathy. Changes in the vessels lead to heart attacks, increased pressure, strokes and thrombosis.

2. Retinopathy. Impaired blood circulation in the retina can lead to its detachment and complete blindness.

3. Nephropathy. It causes hypertension and chronic renal failure.

4. Polyneuropathy. Inflammatory and degenerative changes in the nerve fibers. Entails a loss of sensitivity and the appearance of pain of an indefinite nature.

5. The formation of diabetic foot syndrome. Due to the fact that in diabetes, nerve fibers and small vessels of the extremities are affected, the feet lose sensitivity, the blood circulation is disturbed. The diabetic may not feel damage, temperature drops, wear shoes that he presses, etc.

As a result, damage is formed that does not heal for a long time. Due to metabolic disorders, poor blood circulation, the wounds cannot quickly regenerate, and the increased “sweetness” of the blood is the best food for microorganisms.

Joining the infection further inhibits healing. Fabrics can completely die out. The process comes to the point that you have to amputate the toes or the entire limb.

Prevention of diabetes complications

Diabetics should regularly visit the endocrinologist and pass tests to monitor the state of the target organs.

  1. Blood glucose - daily.
  2. Oculist - every six months.
  3. Urinalysis - at least 4 times a year.
  4. ECG - for heart pain in the heart.
  5. Blood pressure - it is desirable to have a blood pressure monitor in the home first aid kit and measure the pressure every day. Especially if there were cases of its increase.
  6. If there is a violation of sensitivity in the lower extremities, then every 3 months it is necessary to be examined for the presence and severity of neuropathy.

Most endocrinologists believe that diabetes is a special way of life. Prevention of complications lies in a special diet, regular insulin or medication, and daily monitoring of glucose levels.

Only strict adherence to these rules will help avoid the development of complications. In diabetes caused by obesity, it is enough to lose weight and sugar levels return to normal.

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